Hyperreactio luteinalis associated with chronic renal failure.
Hyperreactio luteinalis is a rare benign condition characterized by bilateral ovarian enlargement associated with pregnancies where high concentrations of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophins are present. This condition may mimic the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. We report a case of a 34 year old woman with a history of chronic renal failure on haemodialysis who presented at 10 weeks' gestational age with hyperreactio luteinalis which was treated conservatively. Because of chronic renal failure, the presentation and course of the disease was different from that which has been previously reported. (+info)
Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: the role of arthroscopic surgery and arthrocentesis.
Arthroscopic surgery appears to be a safe, minimally invasive and effective method for treating internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), reducing pain and increasing mandibular range of motion for approximately 80% of patients. Although these results are encouraging, they are largely based on retrospective, uncontrolled and short-term studies. The landmark observation that lysis and lavage in only the upper compartment of the TMJ produce successful clinical results without repositioning the disc has prompted clinicians to question the importance of disc position as a significant factor in the etiology of TMJ pain dysfunction. Although there are prospective, controlled, randomized short-term studies indicating that arthrocentesis and arthroscopic surgery have comparable success rates in the management of acute TMJ closed lock, similar long-term studies are lacking. Until they have been done, the roles of arthroscopic surgery and arthrocentesis in the management of TMJ internal derangements remain unclear. (+info)
A comparison of paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting in patients with ascites.
BACKGROUND: In patients with cirrhosis and ascites, creation of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt may reduce the ascites and improve renal function. However, the benefit of this procedure as compared with that of large-volume paracentesis is uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 60 patients with cirrhosis and refractory or recurrent ascites (Child-Pugh class B in 42 patients and class C in 18 patients) to treatment with a transjugular shunt (29 patients) or large-volume paracentesis (31 patients). The mean (+/-SD) duration of follow-up was 45+/-16 months among those assigned to shunting and 44+/-18 months among those assigned to paracentesis. The primary outcome was survival without liver transplantation. RESULTS: Among the patients in the shunt group, 15 died and 1 underwent liver transplantation during the study period, as compared with 23 patients and 2 patients, respectively, in the paracentesis group. The probability of survival without liver transplantation was 69 percent at one year and 58 percent at two years in the shunt group, as compared with 52 percent and 32 percent in the paracentesis group (P=0.11 for the overall comparison, by the log-rank test). In a multivariate analysis, treatment with transjugular shunting was independently associated with survival without the need for transplantation (P=0.02). At three months, 61 percent of the patients in the shunt group and 18 percent of those in the paracentesis group had no ascites (P=0.006). The frequency of hepatic encephalopathy was similar in the two groups. Of the patients assigned to paracentesis in whom this procedure was unsuccessful, 10 received a transjugular shunt a mean of 5.5+/-4 months after randomization; 4 had a response to this rescue treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with large-volume paracentesis, the creation of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt can improve the chance of survival without liver transplantation in patients with refractory or recurrent ascites. (+info)
Abdominal decompression plays a major role in early postparacentesis haemodynamic changes in cirrhotic patients with tense ascites.
BACKGROUND: Some cirrhotic patients with tense ascites who undergo paracentesis develop a circulatory dysfunction syndrome, manifested by an increase in plasma renin activity. Recently, a significant inverse correlation between postparacentesis changes in plasma renin activity and systemic vascular resistance has been demonstrated in these patients, suggesting that peripheral arterial vasodilatation could be responsible for this circulatory dysfunction, but the mechanisms by which tense ascites removal induces such changes are unknown AIM: To investigate the role of a decrease in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in the development of early postparacentesis haemodynamic changes METHODS: Eleven cirrhotic patients with tense ascites received a large volume paracentesis. A specially designed pneumatic girdle was used to compress the abdomen to avoid a decrease in IAP during ascites removal. Haemodynamic studies were performed before paracentesis, one hour after ascites flow stopped, and 30 minutes after pneumatic girdle deflation RESULTS: When IAP was maintained at its original level, no haemodynamic changes were observed, despite large volume paracentesis. However, a significant decrease in systemic vascular resistance was seen immediately after pneumatic girdle deflation CONCLUSIONS: Early haemodynamic changes after paracentesis are avoided if IAP is maintained at its original level. The abrupt decrease in IAP could be the trigger for the development of the initial haemodynamic changes that eventually produce postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction. (+info)
Chyloabdomen in a mature cat.
A mature, castrated male cat presented with progressive lethargy and a severely distended abdomen. Abdominal radiographs, abdominocentesis, and evaluation of the fluid obtained led to a diagnosis of chyloabdomen. The underlying pathology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment associated with this disease are discussed. (+info)
Current management and novel therapeutic strategies for refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome.
The circulatory disturbances seen in advanced cirrhosis lead to the development of ascites, which can become refractory to diet and medical therapy. These abnormalities may progress and cause a functional renal failure known as the hepatorenal syndrome. Management of refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome is a therapeutic challenge, and if appropriate, liver transplantation remains the best treatment. New therapeutic options have recently appeared, including the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and selective splanchnic vasoconstrictor agents, which may improve renal function and act as a bridge to transplantation. (+info)
Comparison of the effect of terlipressin and albumin on arterial blood volume in patients with cirrhosis and tense ascites treated by paracentesis: a randomised pilot study.
BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis and tense ascites treated by paracentesis alone have a decrease in effective arterial blood volume after ascites removal. Although intravenous albumin is effective in preventing paracentesis induced decreased arterial blood volume, its clinical use is controversial. As paracentesis induces arteriolar vasodilation which plays a role in the development of decreased effective arterial blood volume, administration of a vasoconstrictor (terlipressin) could prevent circulatory alterations due to paracentesis. AIMS: To perform a pilot study comparing the effects of terlipressin and albumin on effective arterial blood volume in patients with cirrhosis treated by paracentesis for tense ascites. METHODS: Twenty patients with cirrhosis and tense ascites were randomly assigned to be treated by either paracentesis and terlipressin or paracentesis and albumin. Terlipressin (3 mg) or albumin (8 g/l of removed ascites) were administered on the day of paracentesis. Effective arterial blood volume was assessed by measuring plasma renin concentrations at baseline and on the day of hospital discharge (4-6 days after treatment). Decreased effective arterial blood volume was defined as an increase in plasma renin concentrations on the day of hospital discharge of more than 50% of baseline values. RESULTS: Irrespective of the treatment group, mean values for plasma renin concentrations at hospital discharge did not differ from their respective baseline values (p=0.10). Baseline plasma levels of renin concentrations did not differ between the terlipressin and albumin groups (p=0.61). Changes from baseline in plasma renin concentrations did not differ between groups (p=0.39). Three patients in the terlipressin group and three in the albumin group developed decreased arterial blood volume. CONCLUSIONS: This randomised pilot study suggests that terlipressin may be as effective as intravenous albumin in preventing a decrease in effective arterial blood volume in patients with cirrhosis treated by paracentesis for tense ascites. (+info)
Mannitolum infusion on cirrhotic patients with tense ascites treated by paracentesis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether albumin can be substituted by mannitolum in cirrhotic patients with tense ascites treated by paracentesis. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients admitted to this therapeutic procedure were randomly assigned to receive intravenous albumin (36 patients) and mannitolum (32 patients) infusion. In repeated large-volume paracentesis (3-6 L/day), intravenous albumin 20 g or intravenous 20% mannitolum 250 ml were added. RESULTS: In 24 and 48 hours after paracentesis the mean value of electrolytes, liver and renal functions and various indicators of systemic circulation either in Group 1 or in Group 2 cases were found without changes (P > 0.05). As compared with that before paracentesis, the diameter of spleen vein was increased significantly (P < 0.05). The complications occurring after paracentesis were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: It was suggested that paracentesis with intravenous infusion of mannitolum is an effective and safe method in treating cirrhotic patients with tense ascites. (+info)