Synergistic protective effects of antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in transient focal ischemia.
Both nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and free radical scavengers have been shown to protect brain tissue in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion act via distinct mechanisms and react together to form the highly deleterious peroxynitrite. Therefore the authors examined the effects and the interaction between the NOS inhibitor, NG nitro-L-arginine (LNA) and the antioxidant/superoxide scavenger, di-tert-butyl-hydroxybenzoic acid (DtBHB) in the rat submitted to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Posttreatment was initiated 4 hours after the onset of ischemia and infarct volume was measured at 48 hours. The dose-related effect of LNA resulted in a bell-shaped curve: 15, 56, 65, and 33% reduction of total infarct for 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg (intravenously [IV]) respectively and 11% increase in infarct volume for 3 mg/kg (IV). Whereas DtBHB (20 mg/kg; intraperitoneally [IP]) was ineffective, the dose of 60 mg/kg produced 65% protection in infarct volume. The combination of a subthreshold dose of LNA (0.03 mg/kg; IV) and DtBHB (20 mg/kg; IP) resulted in significant reduction (49%) in infarct volume. These results show that LNA and DtBHB act synergistically to provide a consistent neuroprotection against ischemic injury when administered 4 hours after ischemia. This suggests that nitric oxide and free radicals are involved and interact in synergy in ischemia-reperfusion injury. (+info)
Effect of neonatal exposure to estrogenic compounds on development of the excurrent ducts of the rat testis through puberty to adulthood.
Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) can alter the structure of the testicular excurrent ducts in rats. We characterized these changes according to dose and time posttreatment and established whether potent estrogens (ethinyl estradiol), environmental estrogens (genistein, octylphenol, bisphenol A, parabens), and tamoxifen induce such changes. Rats were administered these compounds neonatally and assessed at several time points during (day 10, or day 18 for some treatments) and after (days 18, 25, 35, and 75) the treatment period to detect any changes in testis weight, distension of the rete testis and efferent ducts, epithelial cell height in the efferent ducts, and immunoexpression of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1). Treatment with DES (10, 1, or 0.1 microg/injection; equivalent to 0.37, 0.037, or 0.0037 mg/kg/day, respectively) induced dose-dependent changes in testis weight and all parameters. These effects were most pronounced at days 18 and 25 and appeared to lessen with time, although some persisted into adulthood. Neonatal treatment with ethinyl estradiol (10 microg/injection; equivalent to 0.37 mg/kg/day) caused changes broadly similar to those induced by 10 mg DES. Administration of tamoxifen (2 mg/kg/day) caused changes at 18 days that were similar to those induced by 1 microg DES. Treatment with genistein (4 mg/kg/day), octylphenol (2 mg/injection; equivalent to 150 mg/kg/day), or bisphenol A (0.5 mg/injection; equivalent to 37 mg/kg/day) caused minor but significant (p<0.05) decreases in epithelial cell height of the efferent ducts at days 18 and/or 25. In animals that were followed through to 35 days and/or adulthood, these changes were no longer obvious; other parameters were either unaffected or were affected only marginally and transiently. Administration of parabens (2 mg/kg/day) had no detectable effect on any parameter at day 18. To establish whether these effects of estrogens were direct or indirect (i.e., resulting from reduced follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone secretion), the above end points were assessed in animals in which gonadotropin secretion was suppressed neonatally by administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. This treatment permanently reduced testis weight, but did not affect any of the other end points, apart from a minor transient reduction in efferent duct epithelial cell height at 18 days. This study suggests that structural and functional (expression of AQP-1) development of the excurrent ducts is susceptible to impairment by neonatal estrogen exposure, probably as a consequence of direct effects. The magnitude and duration of adverse changes induced by treatment with a range of estrogenic compounds was broadly comparable to their estrogenic potencies reported from in vitro assays. (+info)
Cloning and sequencing of the fcbB gene encoding 4-chlorobenzoate-coenzyme A dehalogenase from Pseudomonas sp. DJ-12.
Pseudomonas sp. DJ-12 degrades 4-chlorobenzoate through hydrolytic dechlorination to produce 4-hydroxybenzoate and a chloride ion. The fcbB gene encoding the 4-chlorobenzoate-coenzyme A (4CBA-CoA) dehalogenase which catalyzes the nucleophilic substitution reaction to convert 4CBA-CoA to 4-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A (4HBA-CoA) in the consecutive steps of dechlorination was cloned from the chromosome of the organism. A nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene showed an open reading frame consisting of 810 nucleotides, which can encode for a polypeptide of molecular mass 30 kDa, containing 269 amino acid residues. A promoter-like sequence (-35 and -10 region) and a putative ribosome-binding sequence were identified. A deduced amino acid sequence of the 4CBA-CoA dehalogenase showed 86%, 50%, and 50% identity with those of corresponding enzymes in the Pseudomonas sp. CBS3, Arthrobacter sp. SU, and Arthrobacter sp. TM1, respectively. (+info)
Conserved cytoplasmic loops are important for both the transport and chemotaxis functions of PcaK, a protein from Pseudomonas putida with 12 membrane-spanning regions.
Chemotaxis to the aromatic acid 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA) by Pseudomonas putida is mediated by PcaK, a membrane-bound protein that also functions as a 4-HBA transporter. PcaK belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transport proteins, none of which have so far been implicated in chemotaxis. Work with two well-studied MFS transporters, LacY (the lactose permease) and TetA (a tetracycline efflux protein), has revealed two stretches of amino acids located between the second and third (2-3 loop) and the eighth and ninth (8-9 loop) transmembrane regions that are required for substrate transport. These sequences are conserved among most MFS transporters, including PcaK. To determine if PcaK has functional requirements similar to those of other MFS transport proteins and to analyze the relationship between the transport and chemotaxis functions of PcaK, we generated strains with mutations in amino acid residues located in the 2-3 and 8-9 loops of PcaK. The mutant proteins were analyzed in 4-HBA transport and chemotaxis assays. Cells expressing mutant PcaK proteins had a range of phenotypes. Some transported at wild-type levels, while others were partially or completely defective in 4-HBA transport. An aspartate residue in the 8-9 loop that has no counterpart in LacY and TetA, but is conserved among members of the aromatic acid/H(+) symporter family of the MFS, was found to be critical for 4-HBA transport. These results indicate that conserved amino acids in the 2-3 and 8-9 loops of PcaK are required for 4-HBA transport. Amino acid changes that decreased 4-HBA transport also caused a decrease in 4-HBA chemotaxis, but the effect on chemotaxis was sometimes slightly more severe. The requirement of PcaK for both 4-HBA transport and chemotaxis demonstrates that P. putida has a chemoreceptor that differs from the classical chemoreceptors described for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. (+info)
Effects of atovaquone and diospyrin-based drugs on ubiquinone biosynthesis in Pneumocystis carinii organisms.
The naphthoquinone atovaquone is effective against Plasmodium and Pneumocystis carinii carinii. In Plasmodium, the primary mechanism of drug action is an irreversible binding to the mitochondrial cytochrome bc(1) complex as an analog of ubiquinone. Blockage of the electron transport chain ultimately inhibits de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis since dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis, is unable to transfer electrons to ubiquinone. In the present study, the effect of atovaquone was examined on Pneumocystis carinii carinii coenzyme Q biosynthesis (rather than electron transport and respiration) by measuring its effect on the incorporation of radiolabeled p-hydroxybenzoate into ubiquinone in vitro. A triphasic dose-response was observed, with inhibition at 10 nM and then stimulation up to 0.2 microM, followed by inhibition at 1 microM. Since other naphthoquinone drugs may also act as analogs of ubiquinone, diospyrin and two of its derivatives were also tested for their effects on ubiquinone biosynthesis in P. carinii carinii. In contrast to atovaquone, these drugs did not inhibit the incorporation of p-hydroxybenzoate into P. carinii carinii ubiquinone. (+info)
HbaR, a 4-hydroxybenzoate sensor and FNR-CRP superfamily member, regulates anaerobic 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.
Under anaerobic conditions, structurally diverse aromatic compounds are catabolized by bacteria to form benzoyl-coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA), the starting compound for a central reductive pathway for aromatic ring degradation. The structural genes required for the conversion of 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA) to benzoyl-CoA by Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been identified. Here we describe a regulatory gene, hbaR, that is part of the 4-HBA degradation gene cluster. An hbaR mutant that was constructed was unable to grow anaerobically on 4-HBA. However, the mutant retained the ability to grow aerobically on 4-HBA by an oxygen-requiring pathway distinct from the anaerobic route of 4-HBA degradation. The effect of the HbaR protein on expression of hbaA encoding 4-HBA-CoA ligase, the first enzyme for 4-HBA degradation, was investigated by using hbaA::'lacZ transcriptional fusions. HbaR was required for a 20-fold induction of beta-galactosidase activity that was observed with a chromosomal hbaA::'lacZ fusion when cells grown anaerobically on succinate were switched to anaerobic growth on succinate and 4-HBA. HbaR also activated expression from a plasmid-borne hbaA-'lacZ fusion when it was expressed in aerobically grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells, indicating that the activity of this regulator is not sensitive to oxygen. The deduced amino acid sequence of HbaR indicates that it is a member of the FNR-CRP superfamily of regulatory proteins. It is most closely related to transcriptional activators that are involved in regulating nitrate reduction. Previously, it has been shown that R. palustris has an FNR homologue, called AadR, that is also required for 4-HBA degradation. Our evidence indicates that AadR activates expression of hbaR in response to anaerobiosis and that HbaR, in turn, activates expression of 4-HBA degradation in response to 4-HBA as an effector molecule. (+info)
Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (E-218) a preservative for drugs and food is an activator of the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel.
1. Haloperidol is a drug used in the management of several psychotic disorders and its use has been linked to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. In the present study we have investigated the effect of a commercial preparation of haloperidol, Serenase, on skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. Addition of Serenase to isolated terminal cisternae caused a rapid release of calcium. We tested whether the active Ca(2+)-releasing substance was haloperidol or another compound present in the preparation. 3. Our results show that methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, one of the preservatives and a commonly used anti-microbial agent (E-218) is an activator of Ca(2+) release (E.C. 50=2.0 mM), mediated by a ruthenium red-sensitive Ca(2+) release channel present in skeletal muscle terminal cisternae. (+info)
Antioxidative galloyl esters as enzyme inhibitors of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase.
Gallic acid and its esters were evaluated as enzyme inhibitors of recombinant p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH), a NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. n-Dodecyl gallate (DG) (IC(50)=16 microM) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) (IC(50)=16 microM), a major component of green tea polyphenols, showed the most potent inhibition, while product-like gallic acid did not inhibit the enzyme significantly (IC(50)>250 microM). Inhibition kinetics revealed that both DG and EGCG inhibited PHBH in a non-competitive manner (K(I)=18.1 and 14.0 microM, respectively). The enzyme inhibition was caused by specific binding of the antioxidative gallate to the enzyme, and by scavenging reactive oxygen species required for the monooxygenase reaction. Molecular modeling predicted that EGCG binds to the enzyme in the proximity of the FAD binding site via formation of three hydrogen bonds. (+info)