(1/909) Interleukin-12 cDNA skin transfection potentiates human papillomavirus E6 DNA vaccine-induced antitumor immune response.

Human papillomaviruses are associated with >90% of all cases of uterine cervical tumors. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of human papillomavirus are potentially ideal targets of immune therapy for cervical cancer, because their expression is necessary for cellular transformation. Although both E6 and E7 proteins contain numerous predicted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes that are capable of binding to human leukocyte antigens, the majority of earlier in vivo tumor rejection studies have focused on E7. We show here that gene gun-mediated skin transfection of plasmid vector encoding the nontransforming, amino-terminal half of E6 resulted in the induction of E6-specific CTL activity and tumor rejection in a murine model. The use of recombinant murine interleukin-12 (rmIL-12) as a vaccine adjuvant has been shown to result in both an enhancement and suppression of immune responses, depending upon the doses of rmIL-12 and the experimental systems used. We demonstrate here that local expression of transgenic mIL-12 at the E6 DNA vaccination site potentiated E6-specific CTL responses and increased vaccine-induced antitumor therapeutic efficacy. Our results indicate that transfection of the mIL-12 gene at the vaccination site may represent an attractive adjuvant for cancer gene immunotherapy.  (+info)

(2/909) Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 DNA vaccine: mutation in the open reading frame of E7 enhances specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte induction and antitumor activity.

A human papillomavirus type 16 E7 DNA vaccine with the open reading frame encoding mutations in two zinc-binding motifs expressed a rapidly degraded E7 protein. This vaccine induced a significantly stronger E7-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and better tumor protection in mice than did a wild-type E7 DNA vaccine expressing a stable E7 protein.  (+info)

(3/909) Recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E7 peptide DNA fused with heat shock protein DNA as a potential vaccine for cervical cancer.

In this study, we explore a potential vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced tumors, using heat shock protein as an adjuvant, a peptide vaccine for safety, and adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a gene delivery vector. The tumor vaccine was devised by constructing a chimeric gene which contained HPV type 16 E7 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope DNA (M. C. Feltkamp, H. L. Smits, M. P. Vierboom, R. P. Minnaar, B. M. de Jongh, J. W. Drijfhout, J. ter Schegget, C. J. Melief, and W. M. Kast, Eur. J. Immunol. 23:2242-2249, 1993) fused with the heat shock protein gene as a tumor vaccine delivered via AAV. Our results demonstrate that this vaccine can eliminate tumor cells in syngeneic animals and induce CD4- and CD8-dependent CTL activity in vitro. Moreover, studies with knockout mice with distinct T-cell deficiencies confirm that CTL-induced tumor protection is CD4 and CD8 dependent. Taken together, the evidence indicates that this chimeric gene delivered by AAV has potential as a cervical cancer vaccine.  (+info)

(4/909) Viral recombinant vaccines to the E6 and E7 antigens of HPV-16.

Most cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix are linked to persistent infections with human papillomaviruses (HPV), most notably HPV-16 or -18. Vaccine-induced immune responses to the HPV early antigens E6 and E7, which contribute to cell transformation and are thus expressed in these cervical cancers, could potentially eradicate malignant cells. We generated recombinant vaccines based on E1-deleted adenovirus human strain 5 or on vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen expressing either the E6 or E7 oncoproteins of HPV-16. The different vaccines were compared in two experimental mouse tumor models employing Balb/c or C57Bl/6 mice. Data presented here demonstrate that depending on the model either CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells provide protection to tumor cell challenge, resulting in striking differences in the efficacy of the four vaccines under investigation.  (+info)

(5/909) A phase I trial of a human papillomavirus (HPV) peptide vaccine for women with high-grade cervical and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia who are HPV 16 positive.

Eighteen women with high-grade cervical or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia who were positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and were HLA-A2 positive were treated with escalating doses of a vaccine consisting of a 9-amino acid peptide from amino acids 12-20 encoded by the E7 gene emulsified with incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Starting with the eleventh patient, an 8-amino acid peptide 86-93 linked to a helper T-cell epitope peptide with a covalently linked lipid tail was added. Patients with colposcopically and biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia II/III received four immunizations of increasing doses of the vaccine each 3 weeks apart, followed by a repeat colposcopy and definitive removal of dysplastic tissue 3 weeks after the fourth immunization. Patients were skin tested with the E7 12-20 peptide as well as control candida, mumps, and saline prior to and after the series of immunizations. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained by leucopheresis prior to and after the series of immunizations for analyses of CTL reactivity to the E7 12-20 and 86-93 epitope sequences. The presence of HPV 16 was assessed by DNA PCR on cervical scrapings and the biopsy specimens after vaccination. Pathology specimens were analyzed before and after vaccination for the presence of dysplasia, and the intralesional infiltrate of CD4/CD8 T-cells and dendritic cells was measured by immunohistochemical staining. Only 3 of 18 patients cleared their dysplasia after vaccine, but an increased S100+ dendritic cell infiltrate was observed in 6 of 6 patients tested. Cytokine release and cytolysis assays to measure E7-specific reactivity revealed increases in 10 of 16 patients tested. No positive delayed type hypersensitivity skin test reactivity was shown in any patient to HPV E7 12-20 before or after vaccinations. Virological assays showed that 12 of 18 patients cleared the virus from cervical scrapings by the fourth vaccine injection, but all biopsy samples were still positive by in situ RNA hybridization after vaccination. Six patients had partial colposcopically measured regression of their cervical intraepithelial neoplastic lesions in addition to the three complete responders. The data establish that a HPV-16 peptide vaccine may have important biological and clinical effects and suggest that future refinements of an HPV vaccine strategy to boost antigen-specific immunity should be explored.  (+info)

(6/909) Safety and immunogenicity trial in adult volunteers of a human papillomavirus 16 L1 virus-like particle vaccine.

BACKGROUND: Studies in animal models have shown that systemic immunization with a papillomavirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine composed of L1, a major structural viral protein, can confer protection against subsequent experimental challenge with the homologous virus. Here we report results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) L1 VLP vaccine in healthy adults. METHODS: Volunteers were given intramuscular injections with placebo or with 10- or 50-microg doses of HPV16 L1 VLP vaccine given without adjuvant or with alum or MF59 as adjuvants at 0, 1, and 4 months. All vaccine recipients were monitored for clinical signs and symptoms for 7 days after each inoculation. Immune responses were measured by an HPV16 L1 VLP-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by an HPV16 pseudovirion neutralization assay. The antibody titers were given as the reciprocals of the highest dilution showing positive reactivity in each assay. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The prevaccination geometric mean ELISA titer for six seropositive individuals was 202 (range, 40--640). All vaccine formulations were well tolerated, and all subjects receiving vaccine seroconverted. Serum antibody responses at 1 month after the third injection were dose dependent in recipients of vaccine without adjuvant or with MF59 but were similar at both doses when alum was the adjuvant. With the higher dose, the geometric means of serum ELISA antibody titers (95% confidence intervals) to purified VLP 1 month after the third injection were as follows: 10,240 (1499 to 69 938) without adjuvant, 10,240 (1114 to 94 145) with MF59, and 2190 (838 to 5723) with alum. Responses of subjects within each group were similar. Neutralizing and ELISA antibody titers were highly correlated (Spearman correlation =.85), confirming that ELISA titers are valid proxies for neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: The HPV16 L1 VLP vaccine is well tolerated and is highly immunogenic even without adjuvant, with the majority of the recipients achieving serum antibody titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than what is observed in natural infection.  (+info)

(7/909) A Phase 1 study of a recombinant viruslike particle vaccine against human papillomavirus type 11 in healthy adult volunteers.

Viruslike particles (VLPs) produced from the L1 protein of several papillomaviruses have induced protection from infection after live challenge in animal models. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of a human papillomavirus (HPV)--11 L1 VLP candidate vaccine were measured in a phase 1, dose-finding trial in humans. The vaccine was well tolerated and induced high levels of both binding and neutralizing antibodies. Marked increases in lymphoproliferation to HPV--11 L1 antigens were noted after the second vaccination. In addition, lymphoproliferation was induced after vaccination in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with heterologous L1 VLP antigens of HPV types 6 and 16. Statistically significant increases in HPV antigen--specific interferon--gamma and interleukin-5 production were measured from PBMC culture supernatants. This candidate HPV VLP vaccine induced robust B and T cell responses, and T cell helper epitopes appear to be conserved across HPV types.  (+info)

(8/909) Papillomavirus pseudovirus: a novel vaccine to induce mucosal and systemic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses.

Intestinal mucosa is a portal for many infectious pathogens. Systemic immunization, in general, does not induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response at the mucosal surface. Because papillomavirus (PV) naturally infects mucosa and skin, we determined whether PV pseudovirus, i.e., PV-like particles in which unrelated DNA plasmids are packaged, could generate specific mucosal immunity. We found that the pseudovirus that encoded the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus gp33 epitope induced a stronger CTL response than a DNA vaccine (plasmid) encoding the same epitope given systemically. The virus-like particles that were used to make the pseudoviruses provided an adjuvant effect for induction of CTLs by the DNA vaccine. The PV pseudovirus pseudoinfected mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues when administered orally. Oral immunization with the pseudovirus encoding human PV type 16 mutant E7 induced mucosal and systemic CTL responses. In comparison, a DNA vaccine encoding E7, when given orally, did not induce a CTL response in intestinal mucosal lymphoid tissue. Further, oral immunization with the human PV pseudovirus encoding E7 protected mice against mucosal challenge with an E7-expressing bovine PV pseudovirus. Thus, PV pseudovirus can be used as a novel vaccine to induce mucosal and systemic CTL responses.  (+info)