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(1/23) Chromosomal imbalances in choroid plexus tumors.

We studied 49 choroid plexus tumors by comparative genomic hybridization. Chromosomal imbalances were found in 32 of 34 choroid plexus papillomas and 15 of 15 choroid plexus carcinomas. Choroid plexus papillomas frequently showed +7q (65%), +5q (62%), +7p (59%), +5p (56%), +9p (50%), +9q (41%), +12p, +12q (38%), and +8q (35%) as well as -10q (56%), -10p, and -22q (47%); choroid plexus carcinomas mainly showed +12p, +12q, +20p (60%), +1, +4q, +20q (53%), +4p (47%), +8q, +14q (40%), +7q, +9p, +21 (33%) as well as -22q (73%), -5q (40%), -5p, and -18q (33%). Several chromosomal imbalance differences could be found that were characteristic for a tumor entity or age group. In choroid plexus papillomas +5q, +6q, +7q, +9q, +15q, +18q, and -21q were significantly more common whereas choroid plexus carcinomas were characterized by +1, +4q, +10, +14q, +20q, +21q, -5q, -9p, -11, -15q, and -18q. Among choroid plexus papillomas, children more often showed +8q, +14q, +12, and +20q; adults mainly presented with +5q, +6q, +15q, +18q, and -22q. Although the number of aberrations overall as well as of gains and losses on their own bore no significance on survival among choroid plexus tumors, a significantly longer survival among patients with choroid plexus carcinomas was associated with +9p and -10q. Our results show that aberrations differ between choroid plexus papillomas and choroid plexus carcinomas as well as between pediatric and adult choroid plexus papillomas, supporting the notion of different genetic pathways. Furthermore, gain of 9p and loss of 10q seem to be correlated with a more favorable prognosis in choroid plexus carcinomas.  (+info)

(2/23) Choroid plexus papillomas of the cerebellopontine angle.

The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a rare site for the growth of choroid plexus papilloma (CPP). The clinicoradiological diagnosis of this tumor in the CPA is difficult because of the nonspecific clinical presentation and radiological features. Five cases of choriod plexus papilloma (3 males, 2 females) operated upon at this center are reviewed. All the cases were operated upon by retromastoid suboccipital craniectomy. As they all presented with a typical CPA syndrome without any distinctive radiological feature, a clinicoradiological diagnosis of CPP could not be reached in any of these. The diagnosis of CPP could only be suspected at the operation table and established on histopathological examination. Two patients developed recurrences at the primary site following surgery. One patient developed recurrence twice despite gross total excision of tumor in each sitting. Subsequently, this patient remained symptom free for a follow-up period of 1 year. Another patient developed recurrence 2 years following surgery, but he died due to septicemia and aspiration pneumonitis. Therefore definitive surgery could not be performed. Radiotherapy was offered to one of the patients having residual mass post operatively, to render her symptom free for a 4 year follow-up. The remaining two patients have also showed progressive improvement in their symptoms following surgery for 4 years on follow-up. Hydrocephalus was a common feature in all the cases preoperatively, but only one required shunt CSF diversion, because of rapid deterioration in visual equity. In all other cases, hydrocephalus was managed conservatively. Surgery remains the main modality of treatment for CPP, both for primary and recurrent tumors, but radiotherapy may have a role in cases of recurrence, which are quite frequent.  (+info)

(3/23) Choroid plexus papilloma and Aicardi syndrome: case report.

A case of Aicardi syndrome associated with a choroid plexus papilloma of the third and both lateral ventricles in a 15 months old baby girl is repported. The tumor was completely removed via three craniotomies. Reports of the literature with the association of choroid plexus papilloma and Aicardi syndrome are rare. We suggest that children diagnosed with Aicardi syndrome should routinely undergo imaging studies of the brain, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance.  (+info)

(4/23) Choroid plexus papilloma of the fourth ventricle.

A 14 year old girl presented with a 6 months' history of headache with vomiting, ataxia and cerebellar signs. CT and MRI revealed obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a large fourth ventricular mass which enhanced markedly on contrast administration. Histopathology of the resected mass revealed papillary structures lined by cuboidal cells confirming choroid plexus papilloma.  (+info)

(5/23) Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging: impact on brain tumor surgery.

BACKGROUND: Refinements in the imaging of intracranial tumors assist neurosurgeons in maximizing resections in a safe manner. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) represents a recent addition to their therapeutic armamentaria. METHODS: The authors reviewed the development of iMRI and describe their experience with iMRI-guided resection of intracranial tumors in 112 patients. The PoleStar N-10 iMRI system was used in this series. RESULTS: Intraoperative imaging resulted in additional tumor removal in 40 (36%) of the patients. In another 35 (31%), imaging confirmed that the goals of surgery had been attained so potentially harmful dissection in and around the brain was avoided. For patients with lesions of the skull base, iMRI was possible in all but 2 patients who had a large body habitus. There was a decrease in length of hospital stay for patients who had surgery with iMRI. Lesion location did not play a role in this change. Brain tumor surgery was affected in 67% of patients. A potential for cost savings with iMRI was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative imaging with MRI is the latest evolution in the increasing precision of neurosurgery. The advantages of this technology will make it a ubiquitous feature in the neurosurgical operating room.  (+info)

(6/23) Choroid plexus papilloma of the posterior third ventricle during infancy & childhood: report of two cases with management morbidities.

We report two cases of posterior third ventricular choroid plexus papilloma, one in an 8-month-old infant and another in a two-year-old child. These cases presented with features of obstructive hydrocephalus. Both these patients underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt surgery prior to the tumor excision. Following the VP shunt surgery both patients developed ascitis requiring exteriorization of the abdominal end of the shunt. There was a clear proof of CSF overproduction: 1400-1500 ml/day in the eight-month-old infant and 900-1200 ml/day in the two-year-old child. In the former it was transient and could be treated with revision of the VP shunt whereas in the second case a ventriculo-arterial shunt had to be done. In the second case a staged reduction cranioplasty was also performed for an enormously enlarged head (head circumference--74 cm). Interesting clinical and radiological findings and useful management strategies are described.  (+info)

(7/23) Papillomas and carcinomas of the choroid plexus: histological and immunohistochemical studies and comparison with normal fetal choroid plexus.

BACKGROUND: Choroid plexus tumors are rare. Results on immunohistochemical features are scanty and controversial even regarding normal plexus. METHOD: Thirteen cases of choroid plexus tumors and five samples of normal fetal choroid plexus were submitted to immunohistochemical study using a panel of epithelial, neuronal and stromal markers. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Relevant histological findings were presence of clear cells in 3/5 papillomas (PP) and 7/8 carcinomas (CA) and all 5 fetal plexuses; rhabdoid cells, desmoplasia and vascular proliferation were found respectively in 3, 4 and 5 cases out of 6 poorly differentiated CA and were absent in PP and well differentiated CA. Pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 was strongly positive in all 13 cases, even in the undifferentiated component of poorly differentiated CA, where reactivity was focal in 3 and diffuse in 3 cases. Low molecular weight cytokeratin (35betaH11) was not expressed in any of the 8 CA, but was present in all 5 PP. In 4 of 6 poorly differentiated CA there was reactivity for smooth muscle actin (1A4) in 10 to 30% of the cells. This was true also for one case lacking rhabdoid cells. Laminin was undetectable in all 6 cases of poorly differentiated CA but was present in 4 PP and 2 well differentiated CA. All 5 fetal plexuses expressed GFAP.  (+info)

(8/23) Choroid plexus papilloma expansion over 7 years in Aicardi syndrome.

Choroid plexus papillomas have been reported in Aicardi syndrome. Management of these tumors is controversial because their natural progression in Aicardi syndrome has only been rarely documented. This report describes the progression of such a tumor over 7 years in a girl with Aicardi syndrome. A magnetic resonance imaging study at 2 months of age demonstrated a right ventricular mass that was consistent with a unilateral choroid plexus papilloma. The mass enlarged over the next 7 years without causing any clinically apparent symptoms, ventricular enlargement, hydrocephalus, or mass effect. The tumor was removed without change in behavior or development. The known cases of Aicardi syndrome associated with choroid plexus papillomas are reviewed. The heterogeneous nature of this lesion is highlighted.  (+info)