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(1/601) Delayed gastric emptying after Billroth I pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy: effect of postoperative time and cisapride.

OBJECTIVE: To study the recovery course of gastric emptying after Billroth I pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) and therapeutic effects of cisapride. METHODS: To examine gastric emptying, acetaminophen was given, admixed in a pasty liquid meal, to 16 patients undergoing PPPD before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Cisapride was given orally to 10 patients before they received the acetaminophen regimen. Electrogastrography was performed at 2 weeks to 1 month after surgery in eight patients and at 6 to 12 months after surgery in seven patients. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was delayed but returned to the preoperative level by 6 months after surgery. Pretreatment with cisapride accelerated gastric emptying during months 1 to 6 but not during months 6 to 12 after surgery. Electrogastrography frequently showed tachygastria 2 weeks to 1 month after surgery, but seldom 6 to 12 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: After Billroth I PPPD, gastric emptying is delayed but recovers by 6 months after surgery. Tachygastria may play a part in the pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying, but it can be treated with cisapride.  (+info)

(2/601) Reexploration for periampullary carcinoma: resectability, perioperative results, pathology, and long-term outcome.

OBJECTIVE: This single-institution experience retrospectively reviews the outcomes of patients undergoing reexploration for periampullary carcinoma at a high-volume center. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Many patients are referred to tertiary centers with periampullary carcinoma after their tumors were deemed unresectable at previous laparotomy. In carefully selected patients, tumor resection is often possible; however, the perioperative results and long-term outcome have not been well defined. METHODS: From November 1991 through December 1997, 78 patients who underwent previous exploratory laparotomy and/or palliative surgery for suspected periampullary carcinoma underwent reexploration. The operative outcome, resectability rate, pathology, and long-term survival rate were compared with 690 concurrent patients who had not undergone previous exploratory surgery. RESULTS: Fifty-two of the 78 patients (67%) undergoing reexploration underwent successful resection by pancreaticoduodenectomy; the remaining 26 patients (34%) were deemed to have unresectable disease. Compared with the 690 patients who had not undergone recent related surgery, the patients in the reoperative group were similar with respect to gender, race, and resectability rate but were significantly younger. The distribution of periampullary cancers by site in the reoperative group undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 52) was 60%, 19%, 15%, and 6% for pancreatic, ampullary, distal bile duct, and duodenal tumors, respectively. These figures were similar to the 65%, 14%, 16% and 5% for resectable periampullary cancers found in the primary surgery group (n = 460). Intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements did not differ between the two groups. However, the mean operative time was 7.4 hours in the reoperative group, significantly longer than in the control group. On pathologic examination, reoperative patients had smaller tumors, and the percentage of patients with positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen was significantly less. The incidence of positive margins was similar between the two groups. Postoperative lengths of stay, complication rates, and perioperative mortality rates were not higher in reoperative patients. The long-term survival rate was similar between the two resected groups, with a median survival of 24 months in the reoperative group and 20 months in those without previous exploration. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that patients undergoing reoperation for periampullary carcinoma have similar resectability, perioperative morbidity and mortality, and long-term survival rates as patients undergoing initial exploration. The results suggest that selected patients considered to have unresectable disease at previous surgery should undergo restaging and reexploration at specialized high-volume centers.  (+info)

(3/601) Prognostic value of MIB-1 index and DNA ploidy in resectable ampulla of Vater carcinoma.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of the proliferative factors, MIB-1 index, DNA ploidy, and S-phase fraction, and further to determine the independent prognostic factors in ampulla of Vater carcinoma after pancreaticoduodenectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Cell kinetics are important indicators of the biologic behavior of various human tumors, but only a few authors have reported the application of cell proliferative factors in ampulla of Vater carcinoma. METHODS: Patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for ampulla of Vater carcinoma were included. Proliferative factors, MIB-1 index, and DNA contents, measured by flow cytometry, were evaluated and compared with the conventional clinicopathologic factors. RESULTS: Ninety resectable ampulla of Vater carcinomas were included. By univariate analysis, MIB-1 index, DNA ploidy, S-phase fraction, stage, and lymph node status were significant prognostic factors. The 5-year survival rate was 40.7% for tumors with MIB-1 index < or =15% and 0% for those with MIB-1 index >15%. Diploid tumors had a significantly better prognosis than aneuploid. Outcomes of stage I and II tumors were more favorable than those of stage III and IV. After multivariate analysis, MIB-1 index, DNA ploidy, and stage remained as the independent prognostic factors. Among the three independent prognostic factors, MIB-1 index was the most powerful. CONCLUSIONS: Both MIB-1 index and DNA ploidy provide important prognostic value and potentially complement the conventional prognostic factors in resectable ampulla of Vater carcinoma. MIB-1 index is the most powerful independent prognostic factor.  (+info)

(4/601) Pancreaticoduodenectomy with or without extended retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma: comparison of morbidity and mortality and short-term outcome.

OBJECTIVE: This prospective, randomized, single-institution trial was designed to evaluate the end points of mortality, morbidity, and survival in patients undergoing standard versus radical (extended) pancreaticoduodenectomy (including distal gastrectomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Numerous retrospective reports and one prospective randomized trial have suggested that the performance of an extended lymphadenectomy in association with a pancreaticoduodenal resection may improve long-term survival for some patients with pancreatic and other periampullary adenocarcinomas. Many of these previously published studies can be criticized for their retrospective and nonrandomized designs, for the inclusion of nonconcurrent control groups, and for their small numbers. METHODS: Between April 1996 and December 1997, 114 patients with periampullary adenocarcinoma were enrolled in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. After intraoperative verification of completely resected periampullary adenocarcinoma, the patients were randomized to receive either a standard pancreaticoduodenectomy (removing only the peripancreatic lymph nodes en bloc with the specimen) or a radical pancreaticoduodenectomy (standard resection plus distal gastrectomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy). All pathology specimens were reviewed and categorized. The postoperative morbidity, mortality, and short-term outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Of the 114 patients randomized, 56 underwent a standard pancreaticoduodenectomy and 58 a radical pancreaticoduodenectomy. The two groups were statistically similar with regard to age and gender, but there was a higher percentage of white patients in the radical group. All the patients in the radical group underwent distal gastric resection, whereas 86% of the patients in the standard group underwent pylorus preservation. The mean operative time in the radical group was 6.8 hours, compared with 6.2 hours in the standard group. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the intraoperative blood loss, transfusion requirements, location of primary tumor, mean tumor size, positive lymph node status, or positive margin status. There were three deaths in the standard group and two in the radical group. The complication rates were 34% for the standard group and 40% for the radical group. Patients undergoing radical resection had a higher incidence of early delayed gastric emptying but had similar rates of other complications, such as pancreatic fistula, wound infection, intraabdominal abscess, and need for reoperation. The mean total number of lymph nodes resected was higher in the radical group. Of the 58 patients in the radical group, only 10% had metastatic carcinoma in the resected retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and none of those patients had the retroperitoneal nodes as the only site of lymph node involvement. The 1-year actuarial survival rate for patients surviving the immediate postoperative periods was 77% for the standard resection group and 83% for the radical resection group. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that radical pancreaticoduodenectomy (with the addition of a distal gastrectomy and extended retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy to a standard pancreaticoduodenectomy) can be performed with similar morbidity and mortality to standard pancreaticoduodenectomy. However, the survival data are not sufficiently mature and the numbers of patients enrolled are not adequate to allow firm conclusions to be drawn regarding survival benefit.  (+info)

(5/601) Association of preoperative biliary drainage with postoperative outcome following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pancreaticoduodenectomy is accompanied by a considerable rate of postoperative complications and potential death. Controversy exists regarding the impact of preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage on morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: Two hundred forty consecutive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy performed between January 1994 and January 1997 were analyzed. Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were examined. Pearson chi square analysis or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, was used for univariate comparison of all variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-five patients (73%) underwent preoperative biliary instrumentation (endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical instrumentation). One hundred twenty-six patients (53%) underwent preoperative biliary drainage (endoscopic stents, percutaneous drains/stents, or surgical drainage). The overall postoperative morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 48% (114/240). Infectious complications occurred in 34% (81/240) of patients. Intraabdominal abscess occurred in 14% (33/240) of patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 5% (12/240). Preoperative biliary drainage was determined to be the only statistically significant variable associated with complications (p = 0.025), infectious complications (p = 0.014), intraabdominal abscess (p = 0.022), and postoperative death (p = 0.037). Preoperative biliary instrumentation alone was not associated with complications, infectious complications, intraabdominal abscess, or postoperative death. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative biliary drainage, but not preoperative biliary instrumentation alone, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. This suggests that preoperative biliary drainage should be avoided whenever possible in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Such a change in current preoperative management may improve patient outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy.  (+info)

(6/601) A case of intraabdominal bleeding following pancreatoduodenectomy successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization.

A 58-year-old male underwent pancreatoduodenectomy based on a diagnosis of middle bile duct cancer. Because abdominal drainage revealed bile leakage 5 days postoperatively, leakage at the site of cholangiojejunostomy was diagnosed, and continuous aspiration was performed. Seventeen days postoperatively, pus was discharged through the abdominal drain. Because bleeding was detected by abdominal drainage, and shock ensued 20 days postoperatively, emergency abdominal angiography was carried out to identify the bleeding site. A false aneurysm in the proper hepatic artery and extravasation from the gastroduodenal artery stump were recognized, and therefore, the proper hepatic artery and common hepatic artery were embolized at a site distal to the false aneurysm using microcoils. Celiac arteriography after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) did not show extravasation, and revealed blood flow from the right inferior phrenic artery to the liver. Liver function was normal after TAE, and the patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 54 days postoperatively. This paper presents a patient in whom intraabdominal bleeding due to leakage at the site of cholangiojejunostomy complicated by infection was successfully treated by hemostasis with TAE.  (+info)

(7/601) Preoperative chemoradiation for patients with pancreatic cancer: toxicity of endobiliary stents.

PURPOSE: A recent multicenter study of preoperative chemoradiation and pancreaticoduodenectomy for localized pancreatic adenocarcinoma suggested that biliary stent-related complications are frequent and severe and may prevent the delivery of all components of multimodality therapy in many patients. The present study was designed to evaluate the rates of hepatic toxicity and biliary stent-related complications and to evaluate the impact of this morbidity on the delivery of preoperative chemoradiation for pancreatic cancer at a tertiary care cancer center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Preoperative chemoradiation was used in 154 patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (142 patients, 92%) or other periampullary tumors (12 patients, 8%). Patients were treated with preoperative fluorouracil (115 patients), paclitaxel (37 patients), or gemcitabine (two patients) plus concurrent rapid-fractionation (30 Gy; 123 patients) or standard-fractionation (50.4 Gy; 31 patients) radiation therapy. The incidences of hepatic toxicity and biliary stent-related complications were evaluated during chemoradiation and the immediate 3- to 4-week postchemoradiation preoperative period. RESULTS: Nonoperative biliary decompression was performed in 101 (66%) of 154 patients (endobiliary stent placement in 77 patients and percutaneous transhepatic catheter placement in 24 patients). Stent-related complications (occlusion or migration) occurred in 15 patients. Inpatient hospitalization for antibiotics and stent exchange was necessary in seven of 15 patients (median hospital stay, 3 days). No patient experienced uncontrolled biliary sepsis, hepatic abscess, or stent-related death. CONCLUSION: Preoperative chemoradiation for pancreatic cancer is associated with low rates of hepatic toxicity and biliary stent-related complications. The need for biliary decompression is not a clinically significant concern in the delivery of preoperative therapy to patients with localized pancreatic cancer.  (+info)

(8/601) Treatment options for villous adenoma of the ampulla of Vater.

INTRODUCTION: Duodenal villous adenoma arising from the ampulla of Vater has a high risk of malignant development. Excluding associated malignant disease prior to resection of an adenoma of the ampulla is not always possible. Therefore, the surgical procedure of choice to treat this rare tumour is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retrospectively results of treatment of villous adenoma arising from ampulla of Vater with dysplasia or associated carcinoma limited to the ampulla. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1985 to 1996, eight patients have been diagnosed with ampullary villous adenoma suitable for resection. We have reviewed treatment, morbidity, mortality, follow-up and final outcome. RESULTS: Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) was performed in 4 patients. Transduodenal ampullectomy and endoscopic resection was performed in 2 patients each. There was no perioperative mortality. None of the patients had biliary, pancreatic or intestinal leakage but two patients who underwent PD had minor postoperative complications. The mean follow-up was 44 (range: 6-132) months. Villous adenoma was associated with adenocarcinoma in 50% of the cases (4/8 patients). During the follow-up both patients who underwent transduodenal ampullectomy developed recurrent disease. All patients initially treated by PD are alive without evidence of recurrent disease. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of villous adenoma of the ampulla must be individualized within certain limits. In our series, PD achieve good results and it appears to be the procedure of choice in order to treat villous adenomas with proved presence of carcinoma, carcinoma in situ or severe dysplasia. Endoscopic or local resection may be appropriate for small benign tumours in high risk patients.  (+info)