(1/422) Diagnostic approach to lymph node enlargement.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: How to reach the correct diagnosis of a lymph node enlargement is still a problem which strongly challenges the knowledge and experience of the clinician. Organized and specifically oriented literature on the right sequential steps and the logical criteria that should guide this diagnostic approach is still lacking. METHODS: The authors have tried to exploit available knowledge and their personal experience by correlating a large body of information regarding size, physical characteristics, anatomical location of enlarged lymph nodes, and the possible epidemiological, environmental, occupational and clinical categorization of this condition. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was intended that such material would have constituted the basis of a hypothetic decision-making tree, but this was impossible because of the lack of epidemiological investigation and registry data. Nevertheless, we present this preparatory work here in order to stimulate the interest of concerned readers and because of its possible direct usefulness in hematologic practice.  (+info)

(2/422) Management of the impalpable testis: the role of laparoscopy.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of laparoscopy in the management of the impalpable testis. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of the clinical findings, interventions, and outcome in 87 consecutive boys undergoing laparoscopy for 97 impalpable testes. RESULTS: Fifty seven testes were either absent (n = 35) or present as a small remnant (n = 22), which was removed at contemporaneous groin exploration. There were 27 intra-abdominal testes, including four hypoplastic testes, which were removed laparoscopically. The 13 remaining viable testes were located in the groin. Conventional orchidopexy followed laparoscopy for 21 testes, and was successful in 17 cases. Two stage laparoscopically assisted Fowler Stevens orchidopexies were performed for 13 intra-abdominal testes, with eight satisfactory results. Ultrasound evaluation significantly reduced the number of conventional orchidopexies following laparoscopy. IMPLICATIONS: Laparoscopy is a rational and safe approach for precise localisation of the impalpable testis. Laparoscopically assisted two stage orchidopexy is a successful treatment procedure for intra-abdominal testes.  (+info)

(3/422) Independent evaluation of onchocerciasis rapid assessment methods in Benue State, Nigeria.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of palpable nodules or skin depigmentation as rapid indicators of onchocerciasis epidemicity in at-risk communities. METHOD: We examined data collected in Benue State on 11035 individuals in 32 villages to evaluate these rapid assessment methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of palpable nodules correlates more closely with microfilarial prevalence (r=0.68, P<0.001) and community microfilarial load (r=0.64, P<0.001) than the prevalences of skin depigmentation or other potential rapid indicators. The recommended cut-off value for palpable nodules of 20% or more in males aged >20 years had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 50% compared to a cut-off of 40% or more for microfilarial prevalence in all ages. This would mean that in these 32 villages 17 of 18 would have been correctly identified for treatment, and a further 7 at lesser risk would have been targeted for treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Skin snipping and parasitological examination can be replaced by the simpler method of palpating onchocercal nodules to identify communities at serious risk of onchocerciasis. This has important operational benefits for onchocerciasis control programmes.  (+info)

(4/422) Embryo transfer: ultrasound-guided versus clinical touch.

In this prospective control study, the pregnancy and implantation rates were compared between ultrasound-guided and clinical touch uterine embryo transfers. In addition, a subset of patients was sought that would particularly benefit from embryo transfer under ultrasound guidance. A total of 187 patients (93 ultrasound and 94 clinical touch) was enrolled. Allocation was random and depended on whether their embryo transfers were done during the 1 h each day in which the ultrasound was available. Pregnancy and implantation rates of 37.8 and 20.4% respectively were achieved when ultrasound was used, compared with 28.9 and 16.2% respectively with clinical touch. This difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in the pregnancy rate when the number of embryos transferred was controlled. Older women (>/=37 years old) had an apparently higher pregnancy rate (38.1 versus 20.4%; not significant) with ultrasound guidance during embryo transfer. In the subgroup where the clinician rated the transfer procedure as difficult, there appeared to be a substantial improvement in the pregnancy rate in the group that used ultrasound (54.5 versus 10.0%; not significant). Although our results were not statistically significant, we believe that ultrasound-guided embryo transfers should be used in clinically difficult embryo transfers and in older women, as it appears to improve the pregnancy rate over clinical touch transfers.  (+info)

(5/422) Cutaneously applied 4-hydroxytamoxifen is not carcinogenic in female rats.

Tamoxifen is widely used to treat oestrogen-dependent carcinoma of the breast. Previous long-term studies have shown that oral administration of tamoxifen induces hepatoproliferative lesions and hepatocellular tumours in rats. 4-hydroxytamoxifen is an active metabolite of tamoxifen undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of various non-malignant breast diseases by topical application. In the present study, 4-hydroxytamoxifen was administered daily by cutaneous application for 101 weeks to groups of 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats at 20, 140 or 1000 microg/kg/day. The product was applied with no occlusive bandage and oral ingestion was avoided by application of an Elizabethan collar for 6 h after administration. Treatment with 4-hydroxytamoxifen was clinically well tolerated and induced changes such as decreased food consumption and body weight gain, uterine and ovarian atrophy, mucification of vaginal epithelium and reduced mammary development, all of which were attributed to its pharmacological action. Mortality was significantly lower in the treated animals. The number of animals with palpable masses was similarly reduced. The incidence of mammary tumours and hypophyseal tumours was markedly lower in 4-hydroxytamoxifen-treated animals. The incidence of chronic tubulo-interstitial nephropathies, a common cause of mortality, was also lowered. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic action of 4-hydroxytamoxifen on the liver, genital organs or skin. Plasma levels of 4-hydroxytamoxifen were stable over the duration of the study and were proportional to the administered dose, exceeding clinical plasma levels by 60-fold at the high dose-level. In conclusion, 4-hydroxytamoxifen is not carcinogenic in the rat and reduces the incidence of spontaneous mammary and hypophyseal tumours.  (+info)

(6/422) Effect of 26 week magnetic field exposures in a DMBA initiation-promotion mammary gland model in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Several studies have suggested that exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields promote chemically induced breast cancer in rats. Groups of 100 female Sprague-Dawley rats were initiated with a single 10 mg gavage dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at 50 days of age followed by exposure to ambient fields (sham exposed), 50 Hz magnetic fields at either 1 or 5 Gauss (G) field intensity or 60 Hz fields at 1 G for 18.5 h/day, 7 days/week for 26 weeks. A vehicle control group without DMBA was included. Rats were palpated weekly for the presence of tumors. There was no effect of magnetic field exposure on body weight gains or the time of appearance of mammary tumors. At the end of 26 weeks, the animals were killed and the mammary tumors counted and measured. Mammary gland masses found grossly were examined histologically. The mammary gland carcinoma incidence was 96, 90, 95 and 85% (P < 0.05, decrease) for the DMBA controls, 1 G 50 Hz, 5 G 50 Hz and 1 G 60 Hz groups, respectively. The total numbers of carcinomas were 649, 494 (P < 0.05, decrease), 547 and 433 (P < 0.05, decrease) for the DMBA controls, 1 G 50 Hz, 5 G 50 Hz and 1 G 60 Hz groups, respectively. The number of fibroadenomas varied from 276 to 319, with the lowest number in the 1 G 60 Hz exposure group. Measurement of the tumors revealed no difference in tumor size between groups. In this breast cancer initiation-promotion study in female Sprague-Dawley rats, there was no evidence that 50 or 60 Hz magnetic fields promoted breast cancer under the conditions of this assay. This study does not support the hypothesis that magnetic field exposure can promote breast cancer in this rat model.  (+info)

(7/422) Patterns of nodal metastases in palpable medullary thyroid carcinoma: recommendations for extent of node dissection.

OBJECTIVE: To establish the frequency, pattern and location of cervical lymph node metastases from palpable medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Recommendations are made regarding the extent of surgery for this tumor. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a tumor of neuroendocrine origin that does not concentrate iodine. Surgical extirpation of the thyroid tumor and cervical node metastases is the only potentially curative therapeutic option. Patterns of node metastases in the neck and guidelines for the extent of dissection for palpable MTC are not well established. METHODS: Seventy-three patients underwent thyroidectomy for palpable MTC with immediate or delayed central and bilateral functional neck dissections. The number and location of lymph node metastases in the central (levels VI and VII) and bilateral (levels II to V) nodal groups were noted and were correlated with the size and location of the primary thyroid tumor. Intraoperative assessment of nodal status by palpation and inspection by the surgeon was correlated with results of histologic examination. RESULTS: Patients with unilateral intrathyroid tumors had lymph node metastases in 81% of central node dissections, 81% of ipsilateral functional (levels II to V) dissections, and 44% of contralateral functional (levels II to V) dissections. In patients with bilateral intrathyroid tumors, nodal metastases were present in 78% of central node dissections, 71% of functional (levels II to V) node dissections ipsilateral to the largest intrathyroid tumor, and 49% of functional (levels II to V) node dissections contralateral to the largest thyroid tumor. The sensitivity of the surgeon's intraoperative assessment for nodal metastases was 64%, and the specificity was 71%. CONCLUSION: In this series, >75% of patients with palpable MTC had associated nodal metastases, which often were not apparent to the surgeon. Routine central and bilateral functional neck dissections should be considered in all patients with palpable MTC.  (+info)

(8/422) Thyroid volumes in US and Bangladeshi schoolchildren: comparison with European schoolchildren.

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization (WHO) recently adopted thyroid volume ultrasonography results from European schoolchildren as the international reference for assessing iodine deficiency disorders. Our objective was to describe thyroid volumes measured by ultrasonography in US and Bangladeshi schoolchildren and compare these with European schoolchildren. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies were performed in schoolchildren in the US (n=302) and Bangladesh (n=398). Data were collected on the following: thyroid size by palpation and ultrasonography; urinary iodine; age; sex; weight; and height. RESULTS: Applying the new WHO thyroid volume references to the Bangladeshi children resulted in prevalence estimates of enlarged thyroid of 26% based on body surface area (BSA) and 7% based on age. In contrast, in the US children, the prevalence estimates were less than 1% for each reference. In the US children, the best single predictor of thyroid volume was BSA (R2=0.32), followed by weight (R2=0.31). Using linear regression, upper normal limits (97th percentile) of thyroid volume from US children were calculated for BSA, weight and age, and were found to be lower than the corresponding references based on BSA and age from European schoolchildren. CONCLUSIONS: In areas with malnutrition, such as Bangladesh, the BSA reference should be preferred to the reference based on age. Results from the US children indicated that a thyroid volume reference based on weight alone would perform as well as the one based on BSA. European schoolchildren had larger thyroids than US children, perhaps due to a residual effect of iodine deficiency in the recent past in some areas in Europe.  (+info)