Immunohistochemical demonstration of nerve terminals in the whole hard palate of rats by use of an antiserum against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5).
Sensory innervation of the entire hard palate was investigated in the rat using serial sections immunostained for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a neuronal marker. PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve endings were widely distributed in the hard palate, but the innervation pattern and density differed among portions. They were numerous at papillary protrusions including the incisal papilla, antemolar/intermolar rugae, and postrugal filiform papillae. Immunoreactive free nerve endings gathered at the summits of the connective tissue papillae, some of them entering deeply into the epithelium. Electron microscopy demonstrated that nerves in the postrugal filiform papillae reached the stratum corneum. The atrial region, possibly the most sensitive in the hard palate, showed unique innervation: its anterior part, adjacent to incisors, developed intraepithelial networks of fine and beaded nerves, whereas its posterior part revealed cone-shaped nerve terminals formed on the connective tissue papillae of the atrial folds which comprised two lines of longitudinal flaps. Taste bud-like corpuscles gathered in the medial walls of the incisal canals and in the "Geschmacksstreifen" (taste stripes) present at the most anterior part of the soft palate. The hard palate of the rat is thus richly innervated, and is characterized by region-specific nerve endings which may be involved in mechano- and chemoreception in the oral cavity. (+info)
MRI study of pharyngeal airway changes during stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve branches in rats.
The medial branch (Med) of the hypoglossal nerve innervates the tongue protrudor muscles, whereas the lateral branch (Lat) innervates tongue retractor muscles. Our previous finding that pharyngeal airflow increased during either selective Med stimulation or whole hypoglossal nerve (WHL) stimulation (coactivation of protrudor and retractor muscles) led us to examine how WHL, Med, or Lat stimulation affected tongue movements and nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) airway volume. Electrical stimulation of either WHL, Med, or Lat nerves was performed in anesthetized, tracheotomized rats while magnetic resonance images of the NP and OP were acquired (slice thickness 0.5 mm, in-plane resolution 0.25 mm). NP and OP volume was greater during WHL and Med stimulation vs. no stimulation (P < 0.05). Ventral tongue depression (measured in the midsagittal images) and OP volume were greater during Med stimulation than during WHL stimulation (P < 0.05). Lat stimulation did not alter NP volume (P = 0.39). Our finding that either WHL or Med stimulation dilates the NP and OP airways sheds new light on the control of pharyngeal airway caliber by extrinsic tongue muscles and may lead to new treatments for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. (+info)
Hard palate deformation in an animal model following quasi-static loading to stimulate that of orthodontic anchorage implants.
The aim of the present investigation was to identify adequate implant treatment for young patients. In an animal model palate deformation was investigated by acute quasi-static loading. Three series of tests (with newborn, young and adult pigs) were performed, each with two groups (one or two-point stress) and 5-7 animals per group. Discs with a diameter of 3 and 5 mm were placed in group 1 in the suture area, and in group 2 at both the right and left sides of the suture. Deformation was analysed by a computerized three-dimensional (3D) photo-imaging evaluation system. In young animals the one-point load at a significantly lower force level led to fractures in comparison with the two-point load (P < 0.001). Similar results were measured by an increase in the size of one disc from 3 to 5 mm (P < 0.001). In contrast, adult pigs showed stable results with both methods. In general, a larger disc diameter led to less instability. The one-point load seems to be suitable for adult animals, whereas a two-point load might be favourable during ossification. The advantage of the two-point load is the generation of a higher stress and therefore improved control of dental fixation. However, further tests are necessary to investigate the long-term effects. (+info)
Autogenous hard palate mucosa: the ideal lower eyelid spacer?
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Raising a displaced lower eyelid frequently involves recession of the lower eyelid retractors with interposition of a "spacer," and several materials for this purpose have been described. This study reviewed the results of autogenous palatal mucosa in the treatment of lower eyelid displacement, including assessment of any donor site morbidity. METHODS: A retrospective case note review of consecutive patients treated at Moorfields Eye Hospital between 1993 and 1998. All patients underwent insertion of hard palate mucosa between the inferior border of the tarsus and the recessed conjunctiva and lower eyelid retractors. Parameters studied included the underlying diagnosis, measurements of lower lid displacement or retraction, related previous surgery, the experience of the operating surgeon, intraoperative and postoperative complications, surgical outcome, and length of follow up. The main outcome measure was the position of the lower eyelid relative to the globe in primary position of gaze. RESULTS: 102 lower eyelids of 68 patients were included and a satisfactory lid position was achieved in 87/102 (85%), with inadequate lengthening or significant recurrence of displacement occurring in 15 cases. Donor site haemorrhage requiring treatment in the early postoperative period occurred in seven patients (10%). CONCLUSION: Autogenous hard palate mucosa is an effective eyelid spacer and provides good long term support for the lower eyelid. Donor site complications are the main disadvantage, but may be minimised by attention to meticulous surgical technique and appropriate postoperative management. (+info)
The use of an osseointegrated implant for orthodontic anchorage to a Class II Div 1 malocclusion.
This case report describes the use of an osseointegrated implant to maximize anchorage in a 24-year-old female orthodontic patient with an Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. Preadjusted edgewise appliance therapy was performed by extraction of only the maxillary first premolars. The osseointegrated implant was placed in the median-sagittal region of the hard palate for maximum orthodontic anchorage and connected to maxillary first molar bands via a transpalatal arch. Total treatment time was 2 years and 8 months. Cephalometric superimposition revealed the achievement of maximum molar anchorage in the maxilla, resulting in satisfactory occlusal and facial improvements. Histological analysis of the implant-bone interface demonstrated that the fixture was successfully osseointegrated. In conclusion, the osseointegrated implant placed in the median-sagittal palate was shown to be an effective orthodontic system that can be used clinically as a rigid intraoral anchorage. (+info)
Nasal teeth: report of three cases.
The ectopic eruption of the teeth into the nasal cavity is a rare phenomenon. We report cases: two involving the nasal cavity and one involving the hard palate and complicated by Aspergillus rhinitis. We describe the clinical and radiologic presentation of these cases and discuss their etiology, complications, diagnosis, and treatment. (+info)
A cephalometric inter-centre comparison of growth in children with cleft lip and palate.
AIM: To examine whether the treatment provided by the Mount Vernon Cleft Team produces craniofacial growth outcomes comparable with that of the Oslo Team. LOCATION: Mount Vernon Hospital, Middlesex, UK. DESIGN: A retrospective cephalometric investigation. SUBJECTS: Seventy-five Mount Vernon children and 150 Oslo children with complete unilateral or bilateral clefts of the lip and palate METHOD: The subjects were matched for age, gender, and cleft type, and their radiographs were digitized. The radiographs from each site were grouped according to patient age (9-11 or 14-16) and cleft classification (bilateral/unilateral). Patients with associated craniofacial anomalies were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Of the four variables studied (SNA, SNPg, NGn, sNANsPG) significant differences in maxillary growth were noted for bilateral and unilateral cleft groups at 14-16 years of age. The soft tissue profile was significantly flatter in bilateral and unilateral Mount Vernon cases at 14-16 years. The craniofacial growth exhibited by the Mount Vernon patients demonstrated 3.9-5.1 degrees reduction in maxillary prominence with respect to the Oslo sample. The bilateral cases from Mount Vernon had greater anterior face heights at 14-16 years. CONCLUSION: The treatment provided by the Mount Vernon Cleft team leads to a reduced maxillary prominence in children aged 14-16 years compared with the Oslo sample. This reduction is statistically significant in unilateral cleft lip and palate. (+info)
Chair-side procedure for connecting transpalatal arches with palatal implants.
The present investigation examined a chair-side procedure for connecting a transpalatal arch (TPA) with palatal implants, which does not involve any laboratory work. This new technique was compared with the standard procedure in terms of the number of steps, the time required, and the cost. The total chair-side time needed with the standard procedure was 38 minutes, with the material costs amounting to [symbol: see text] 159.6. With the chair-side procedure the total time required was 55 minutes, and the cost of the material totalled [symbol: see text] 34.1. The chair-side procedure was derived from orthodontic treatment concepts and is independent of laboratory input. Its major advantage is that it does not require transfers, which necessitate additional steps. These steps, which are inevitable with the standard procedure, resulted in an unexpectedly high cost level and increased the total cost. The difference in the cost of the material between the two procedures amounted to [symbol: see text] 125.5 and timewise the difference was 17 minutes. Whilst TPA-implant connections can be made with both the standard and chair-side procedures, the standard procedure, although taking considerably less chair-side time, was four times more expensive than the chair-side procedure. (+info)