New paeonilactone-A adducts formed by anaerobic incubation of paeoniflorin with Lactobacillus brevis in the presence of arylthiols. (1/65)

During the course of preparing anticonvulsant paeonimetabolin-I adducts, new paeonilactone-A adducts: 9-phenylthiopaeonilactone-A, 9-(o-tolylthio)paeonilactone-A, 9-(m-tolylthio)paeonilactone-A, 9-(p-tolylthio)-paeonilactone-A and 9-(2-naphthylthio)paeonilactone-A, were obtained along with expected paeonimetabolin-I adducts by anaerobic incubation of paeoniflorin from peony roots with Lactobacillus brevis in the presence of the aromatic thiols, phenylthiol, o-tolylthiol, m-tolylthiol, p-tolylthiol and 2-naphthylthiol. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods including two dimensional (2D) NMR.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic interactions between carbamazepine and the traditional Chinese medicine Paeoniae Radix. (2/65)

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Paeoniae Radix (PR), one of the most famous tonic traditional Chinese medicines, on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine (CBZ) in rats and to determine the possible interactions between PR and CBZ. The significant decrease in Tmax indicated that simultaneous oral administration of PR contributed to more rapid absorption of CBZ. It is suggested that the faster absorption of CBZ might lead to the rapid onset of its clinical effect. There were no significant differences in maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), half-life (t1/2), mean residence time (MRT), clearance/bioavailability (CL/F), and apparent volume of distribution/bioavailability (Vd/F) of CBZ between the two groups, showing that PR did not significantly affect the absorption extent, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of CBZ. A significant decrease in protein binding rate was found when CBZ was coadministered with PR. Further studies are in progress to clarify the clinical significance and the mechanism underlying the effects of PR on the protein binding of CBZ observed in the present study.  (+info)

Antioxidative activity of resveratrol and its derivatives isolated from seeds of Paeonia lactiflora. (3/65)

Seven stilbenes, a new cis-epsilon-viniferin and the six known stilbenes, trans-resveratrol, trans-resveratrol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, trans-epsilon-viniferin, gnetin H, and suffruticosol A and B, were isolated and identified from seeds of Paeonia lactiflora. The antioxidative activity of these stilbene derivatives was evaluated against the 2-deoxyribose degradation and rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by the hydroxyl radical generated via a Fenton-type reaction. Among these stilbenes, trans-epsilon-viniferin and gnetin H significantly inhibited 2-deoxyribose degradation and lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. In addition, cis-epsilon-viniferin, and suffruticosol A and B also exhibited moderate antioxidative activity. These results suggest that resveratrol dimers and trimers, together with resveratrol from seeds of Paeonia lactiflora may be useful as potential sources of natural antioxidants.  (+info)

Protective effect of moutan cortex extract on acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity in human Chang liver cells. (4/65)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Moutan Cortex on acetaminophen (AAP)-induced toxicity in human Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with AAP (0-30 mM) to evaluate the drug's ability to reduce cytoviability. For the cells treated with 10, 20 and 30 mM AAP, LDH leakage was 39.8%, 49.0% and 57.6%, respectively. Administration of Moutan Cortex reduced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Glutathione (GSH) concentration in human liver cells decreased significantly after exposure to 20 (p<0.05) and 30 mM (p<0.01) AAP, and increased (p<0.05) if incubated with AAP and Moutan Cortex. The ability of AAP to inhibit mitochondrial function and its counteraction by Moutan Cortex was also evaluated. Moutan Cortex showed dose-dependent increases in MTT metabolism and ATP levels in AAP-treated cells. The DNA content of AAP-treated cells increased with the treatment of Moutan Cortex. These observations demonstrate that Moutan Cortex may significantly attenuate AAP-induced toxicity. It can be considered a cytoprotective agent in this in vitro model of drug toxicity.  (+info)

Induction of hemopoiesis by saenghyuldan, a mixture of Ginseng radix, Paeoniae radix alba, and Hominis placenta extracts. (5/65)

AIM: To examine the efficacy of saenghyuldan and its components, Ginseng Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Hominis Placenta extracts (SHD, GR, PRA, and HP, respectively) on the hemopoiesis in a myelosuppression model system. METHODS: Susceptibility to cyclophosphamide (CP) and S180 carcinoma was determined in SHD, GR, PRA, and HP-treated mice. Analysis of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells was demonstrated by changes in cell types and histopathologic examination. The expression of cytokine mRNAs involved in hemopoiesis was examined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: SHD and its separated components (GR, HP, and PRA, respectively) significantly increased the survival in CP- and S180-treated mice. The hematology data demonstrated that all the agents augmented monocyte and leucocyte counts in the peripheral blood and increased bone marrow density and the ratio of leukocyte to erythrocyte in the bone marrow. These findings were positively correlated with the up-regulation of cytokine mRNA expression such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), erythropoietin (EPO), thrombopoietin (TPO), stem cell factor (SCF), and c-Kit. CONCLUSION: SHD is an effective remedy for the bone marrow failure and myelosuppression occurring during chemotherapy.  (+info)

Effects of Paeonia radix on 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of exercised rats. (6/65)

Paeonia radix is the root of Paeonia japonica MIYABE, a perennial plant classified in the family Paeoniaceae. In the present study, the effects of Paeonia radix on performance in treadmill exercise, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression in the dorsal raphe were investigated. Time to exhaustion in treadmill exercise was increased and exercise-induced increases in 5-HT synthesis and TPH expression in the dorsal raphe were shown to be suppressed by Paeonia radix treatment; 5-HT synthesis and TPH expression were inhibited by Paeonia radix treatment under resting conditions as well. In sum, treatment with Paeonia radix, inhibiting 5-HT synthesis and TPH expression, may bring about reduced fatigue, both during exercise and the resting state.  (+info)

Paeonins A and B, lipoxygenase inhibiting monoterpene galactosides from Paeonia emodi. (7/65)

Paeonins A and B, new monoterpene galactosides have been isolated from the chloroform-soluble fraction of the roots of Paeonia emodi and showed potent lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. The structures of 1 and 2 have been assigned on the basis of spectral analysis including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.  (+info)

Restorative effect of repetitive administration of Shaoyao-Gancao-tang on bioavailability of paeoniflorin reduced by antibacterial synthetic drugs treatment in rats. (8/65)

Paeoniflorin (PF) is an active glucoside in Shaoyao (peony root), and is transformed into an antispasmodic metabolite, paeonimetabolin-I (PM-I), by intestinal bacteria in the gut after oral administration of Shaoyao or Shaoyao-Gancao-tang (SGT, Shakuyaku-Kanzo-To in Japanese). SGT is a pain-relieving traditional Chinese formulation (Kampo-medicine in Japanese) and is often used together with antibacterial synthetic drugs, such as amoxicillin and metronidazole (AMPC-MET), in peptic ulcer therapy. Since the bioavailability of PF in SGT has been reported to be significantly reduced by co-administered antibacterial drugs, we investigated how to minimize this reducing effect of antibacterial treatment in the present study. We found that repetitive administration of SGT starting 24 h after AMPC-MET treatment rapidly restored the plasma PM-I concentration from SGT reduced by AMPC-MET, due to its restorative effect on the decreased PF-metabolizing activity of intestinal bacteria in rat feces. The present findings suggest that it may be clinically useful to administer SGT repetitively, starting 1 or 2 d after treatment with a mixture of AMPC-MET during their combination therapy, to accelerate the recovery of the reduced bioavailability of PF in SGT. Similar administration regimens may also be useful in other combination therapies involving traditional Chinese formulations and antibacterial synthetic drugs to ensure the efficacy of the bioactive glycosides in the formulations.  (+info)