Five triterpene glycosides from Oxytropis myriophylla.
Four new triterpene glycosides: one cycloartane-type glycoside and three azukisapogenol glycosides were isolated together with one known oleanene bisdesmoside from the Mongolian natural medicine, Oxytropis myriophylla. (+info)
Appearance and disappearance of swainsonine in serum and milk of lactating ruminants with nursing young following a single dose exposure to swainsonine (locoweed; Oxytropis sericea).
A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the elimination of swainsonine in the milk of lactating ruminants following a single dose oral exposure to swainsonine (locoweed; Oxytropis sericea) and to assess subsequent subclinical effects on the mothers and their nursing young. In a preliminary experiment, lactating ewes were gavaged with locoweed providing 0.8 mg swainsonine/kg BW (n = 4; BW = 75.8 +/- 3.6 kg; lactation = d 45) and lactating cows were offered up to 2.0 mg swainsonine/kg BW free choice (n = 16; BW = 389.6 +/- 20.9 kg; lactation = d 90). Serum and milk were collected at h 0 (before treatment), 3, 6, 12, and 24 for ewes, and h 0 (before treatment), 6, 12, 18, and 24 for cows. Swainsonine was highest (P < 0.05) by h 6 in the serum and milk of ewes. Consumption of at least 0.61 mg swainsonine/kg BW induced consistent (> 0.025 microg/mL) appearance of swainsonine in cow serum and milk. In response to the results obtained in the preliminary experiment, a subsequent experiment utilizing lactating ewes (n = 13; BW = 74.8 +/- 6.4 kg; lactation = d 30) and cows (n = 13; BW = 460.8 +/- 51.9 kg; lactation = d 90) was conducted. Each lactating ruminant was gavaged with a locoweed extract to provide 0 (control), 0.2, or 0.8 mg swainsonine/kg BW and individually penned with her nursing young. Serum and milk from the mothers and serum from the nursing young were collected at h 0 (before treatment), 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 (an additional sample was obtained at h 72 for ewes and lambs). Serum and milk swainsonine was higher (P < 0.05) in the 0.8 mg treated groups and maximal (P < 0.05) concentrations occurred from h 3 to 6 for ewes and h 6 to 12 h for cows (P < 0.05). Rises in alkaline phosphatase activity indicated subclinical toxicity in the treated ewes (P < 0.05). Following a single dose oral exposure to 0.2 and 0.8 mg swainsonine/kg BW provided by a locoweed extract, swainsonine was detected in the serum and milk of lactating ewes and cows, and rises in serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed in the ewes. Neither swainsonine nor changes in alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in the serum of the lambs and calves nursing the ewes and cows dosed with swainsonine. (+info)
Dose response of sheep poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea).
Locoweed poisoning occurs when livestock consume swainsonine-containing Astragalus and Oxytropis species over several weeks. Although the clinical and histologic changes of poisoning have been described, the dose or duration of swainsonine ingestion that results in significant or irreversible damage is not known. The purpose of this research was to document the swainsonine doses that produce clinical intoxication and histologic lesions. Twenty-one mixed-breed wethers were dosed by gavage with ground Oxytropis sericea to obtain swainsonine doses of 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Sheep receiving > or = 0.2 mg/kg gained less weight than controls. After 16 days, animals receiving > or = 0.4 mg/kg were depressed, reluctant to move, and did not eat their feed rations. All treatment groups had serum biochemical changes, including depressed alpha-mannosidase, increased aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, as well as sporadic changes in lactate dehydrogenase, sodium, chloride, magnesium, albumin, and osmolarity. Typical locoweed-induced cellular vacuolation was seen in the following tissues and swainsonine doses: exocrine pancreas at > or = 0.05 mg/kg; proximal convoluted renal and thyroid follicular epithelium at > or = 0.1 mg/kg; Purkinje's cells, Kupffer's cells, splenic and lymph node macrophages, and transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder at > or = 0.2 mg/kg; neurons of the basal ganglia, mesencephalon, and metencephalon at > or = 0.4 mg/kg; and cerebellar neurons and glia at > or = 0.8 mg/kg. Histologic lesions were generally found when tissue swainsonine concentrations were approximately 150 ng/g. Both the clinical and histologic lesions, especially cerebellar lesions are suggestive of neurologic dysfunction even at low daily swainsonine doses of 0.2 mg/kg, suggesting that prolonged locoweed exposure, even at low doses, results in significant production losses as well as histologic and functional damage. (+info)
New flavonoids from Oxytropis myriophylla.
Eight compounds were isolated from Oxytropis myriophylla. On the basis of spectral analyses, their structures were elucidated to be (6R,9R)-roseoside (1), (6R,9S)-roseoside (2), adenosine (3), myriophylloside B (4), myriophylloside C (5), myriophylloside D (6), myriophylloside E (7), and myriophylloside F (8). Five flavonoids (4-8) were new compounds, and the three known compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. (+info)
The toxicosis of Embellisia fungi from locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii) is similar to locoweed toxicosis in rats.
Locoweeds cause significant livestock poisoning and economic loss in the western United States. The toxicity of Embellisia sp. fungi isolated from locoweed was compared with locoweed toxicity using the rat as a model. Rats were fed diets containing locoweed, fungus and alfalfa, or alfalfa. Locoweed- and fungus-fed rats consumed swainsonine-containing food at approximately 1.3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), gained less weight (P = 0.001) and ate less than controls. Swainsonine is the principal agent responsible for inducing locoism in animals. The concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes were greater (P < 0.05) in serum of locoweed- and fungus-fed rats compared with control rats. Similar intracellular vacuolation was observed in renal, pancreatic, and hepatic tissues of rats that consumed either locoweed or fungus. Rats that ate locoweed or Embellisia fungi displayed indistinguishable toxicity symptoms. The Embellisia fungi from locoweed can induce toxicity without the plants. Locoism management strategies need to involve management of the Embellisia fungi. (+info)
Effects of locoweed on serum swainsonine and selected serum constituents in sheep during acute and subacute oral/intraruminal exposure.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of acute and subacute locoweed exposure on serum swainsonine concentrations and selected serum constituents in sheep. Thirteen mixed-breed wethers (BW = 47.5 +/- 9.3 kg) were assigned randomly to 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 mg of swainsonine x kg BW(-1) x d(-1) treatments. During acute (24 h) and subacute (19 d) exposure, serum swainsonine was detected in all treatments and was greatest (P < 0.03) in the 0.8 mg treatment. Serum alkaline phosphate (ALK-P) activity was increased (P < 0.01) for the 0.8 mg treatment compared with baseline (0 h) by 7 h and continued to increase throughout the initial 22 h following acute exposure to locoweed. A linear increase (P < 0.01) in serum ALK-P activity was noted, with the rate being 3.00 +/- 0.56 U x L(-1) x h(-1). Serum ALK-P activity was increased (P < 0.05) across treatments on d 7 over d -19, -12, 0, 1, 21, and 26; on d 14 over d -19, -12, 0, and 26; and on d 19 over d -19, -12, 0, 1, 21, and 26. By d 20, approximately 48 h after last exposure to swainsonine, serum ALK-P activities were no longer different (P = 0.13) than baseline (d -19, -12, and 0), and by d 26 values had generally returned to baseline. No linear (P = 0.98), quadratic (P = 0.63), or cubic effects of swainsonine with time from exposure were noted for serum aspartate aminotransferase. Similar to serum ALK-P activities, serum aspartate aminotransferase activities were increased (P < 0.05) across treatment levels on d 7, 14, 19, 20, 21, and 26 over those on d -19, -12, 0, and 1. Total serum Fe was decreased (P < 0.05) within the initial 22 h following the swainsonine exposure. On d 21 (48 h after swainsonine feeding ended), serum Fe increased to 472 mg/L. Concentrations of ceruloplasmin were lower (P < 0.10) on d 14 and 19 following exposure to locoweed. Recovery of ceruloplasmin levels coincided with similar changes in serum Fe. There was a linear (slope = 0.33 mg x dL(-1) x d(-1); P < 0.01) effect with time of exposure to locoweed (i.e., swainsonine) on serum triglyceride concentrations. Rapid changes in serum ALK-P and Fe concentrations without parallel changes in other damage markers indicate that acute exposure to swainsonine induces metabolic changes that may impair animal production and health before events of cytotoxicity thought to induce clinical manifestation of locoism. (+info)
The effect of alkaloid from Oxytropis ochrocephala on growth inhibition and expression of PCNA and p53 in mice bearing H22 Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
To study the antitumor activity of alkaloid extracted from Oxytropis ochrocephala and its possible mechanism, we observed the effect of alkaloid on tumor weight and expression of PCNA and p53 in mice bearing H(22) hepatocellular carcinoma by means of immunohistochemistry SP method. After treatment with alkaloid from Oxytropis ochrocephala, the results showed that alkaloid administration (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) could inhibit H(22) hepatocellular carcinoma growth to various extent, and the rates of inhibition were 48.5% and 57.7% respectively (p<0.01). The antitumor activity of the alkaloid is in a dose dependent manner, with no signs of toxicity to weight, kidney and liver. The sections of tumor showed the number of tumor cell decreased and nucleus appeared putrescence such as nucleus atrophy, disintegrating and dissolving. Meanwhile, the expression of PCNA and mutant p53 protein positive cell numbers in mice bearing H(22) hepatocellular carcinoma also suppressed by alkaloid (p<0.05). It suggested that Alkaloid from Oxytropis ochrocephala showed antitumor effect and its possible mechanism might be associated with the expression inhibition of PCNA and mutant p53 protein. Further studies are needed to explore the antitumor activity of the other compounds of Oxytropis ochrocephala and to specify their possible mechanism of action. (+info)
Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea)-induced lesions in mule deer (Odocoileius hemionus).
Locoweed poisoning has been reported in wildlife, but it is unknown whether mule deer (Odocoileius hemionus) are susceptible. In areas that are heavily infested with locoweed, deer and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) have developed a spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease (CWD). Although these are distinct diseases, no good comparisons are available. The purpose of this study was to induce and describe chronic locoweed poisoning in deer and compare it with the lesions of CWD. Two groups of four mule deer were fed either a complete pelleted ration or a similar ration containing 15% locoweed (Oxytropis sericea). Poisoned deer lost weight and developed a scruffy, dull coat. They developed reluctance to move, and movement produced subtle intention tremors. Poisoned deer had extensive vacuolation of visceral tissues, which was most severe in the exocrine pancreas. Thyroid follicular epithelium, renal tubular epithelium, and macrophages in many tissues were mildly vacuolated. The exposed deer also had mild neuronal swelling and cytoplasmic vacuolation that was most obvious in Purkinje cells. Axonal swelling and dystrophy was found in many white tracts, but it was most severe in the cerebellar peduncles and the gracilis and cuneate fasciculi. These findings indicate that deer are susceptible to locoweed poisoning, but the lesions differ in severity and distribution from those of other species. The histologic changes of locoweed poisoning are distinct from those of CWD in deer; however, the clinical presentation of locoweed poisoning in deer is similar. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies are required for a definitive diagnosis. (+info)