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(1/286) The effects of inflammation and inflammatory mediators on nociceptive behaviour induced by ATP analogues in the rat.

1. We have studied the behavioural effects of intraplantar injections of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and related compounds in freely moving rats and investigated whether these nociceptive effects are augmented in the presence of inflammatory mediators. 2. We find that in normal animals ATP and analogues produce dose-dependent nocifensive behaviour (seen as bursts of elevation of the treated hindpaw), and localized thermal hyperalgesia. The rank order of potency was: alpha,beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-methylene ATP) > 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-methylthio ATP) > ATP. After neonatal treatment with capsaicin, to destroy small calibre primary sensory neurones, nocifensive behaviour was largely absent. 3. The effects of ATP analogues were assessed in three models of peripheral sensitization: 2 h after dilute intraplantar carrageenan (0.25% w v(-1)); 24 h after irradiation of the hindpaw with ultraviolet (U.V.) B; immediately following prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment. In all models the effect of alpha,beta-methylene ATP was greatly augmented. After carrageenan, significant hindpaw-lifting behaviour activity was induced by injection of only 0.05 nmol of alpha,beta-methylene ATP, some 100 times less than necessary in normal skin. 4. Our data suggest that it is much more likely that endogenous levels of ATP will reach levels capable of exciting nociceptors in inflamed versus normal skin. Our data also suggest the involvement of P2X3 receptor subunits in ATP-induced nociception.  (+info)

(2/286) Control of luteolysis in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

Blood plasma concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2 alpha (PGFM) were measured in groups of mature non-pregnant and pregnant camels to study PGF2 alpha release patterns around the time of luteolysis and the timing of the signal for pregnancy recognition. Injection of each of four camels with 10 and 50 mg of PGF2 alpha showed clearly that five times the dose of exogenous hormone produced five times the amount of PGFM in peripheral plasma, thereby indicating that, as in other animal species, PGFM is the principal metabolite of PGF2 alpha in the camel. Serial sampling of three non-pregnant camels on each of days 8, 10 and 12, and three pregnant camels on day 10, after ovulation for 8 h showed a significant (P < 0.05) rise in mean plasma PGFM concentrations only on day 10 in the non-pregnant, but not the pregnant, animals. A single intravenous injection of 20, 50 or 100 iu oxytocin given to three groups of three non-pregnant camels on day 10 after ovulation did not increase their basal serum PGFM concentrations. However, daily treatment of six non-pregnant camels between days 6 and 15 (n = 3) or 20 (n = 3) after ovulation with 1-2 g of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, meclofenamic acid, inhibited PGF2 alpha release and thereby resulted in continued progesterone secretion throughout the period of meclofenamic acid administration. These results showed that, as in other large domestic animal species, release of PGF2 alpha from, presumably, the endometrium controls luteolysis in the dromedary camel. Furthermore, reduction in the amount of PGF2 alpha released is associated with luteal maintenance and the embryonic signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy must be transmitted before day 10 after ovulation if luteostasis is to be achieved. However, the results also indicate that, in contrast to ruminants, the release of endometrial PGF2 alpha in the non-pregnant camel may not be controlled by the release of oxytocin.  (+info)

(3/286) Dopaminergic synapses mediate neuronal changes in an analogue of operant conditioning.

Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.). A neuronal analogue of this conditioning in the isolated buccal ganglia was developed by using stimulation of E n. as an analogue of contingent reinforcement. Previous studies indicated that E n. may release dopamine. We used a dopamine antagonist (methylergonovine) to investigate whether dopamine mediated the enhancement of motor patterns in the analogue of operant conditioning. Methylergonovine blocked synaptic connections from the reinforcement pathway and the contingent-dependent enhancement of the reinforced pattern. These results suggest that dopamine mediates at least part of the neuronal modifications induced by contingent reinforcement.  (+info)

(4/286) Long lasting spasticity in controlled vasospastic angina.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in coronary artery spasticity in patients with vasospastic angina who had been stable for years under continuous drug treatment. METHODS: Follow up coronary angiography was performed under intracoronary ergonovine provocation in 27 well controlled patients with vasospastic angina and no organic stenosis; the tests were done > 24 months after the initial coronary angiography, in which occlusive spasm had been induced by the same regimen of ergonovine provocation. RESULTS: The mean (SD) follow up period was 47.2 (21.6) months. All patients had been free from angina attack for more than 24 months under treatment with antianginal drugs. During this follow up period, organic stenosis developed in only one case. Occlusive spasm was observed during follow up coronary angiography in 23 patients. Spasm with 90% narrowing was observed in three other patients, and diffuse significant narrowing was seen in the final patient. No significant difference was found in spasticity (p = 0.75) between the initial and the follow up tests. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated ergonovine provocation during coronary angiography after a controlled period of several years showed that coronary spasm remains inducible in most patients. Discontinuance of drug treatment during the remission from anginal attacks achieved by medication may put the patient at high risk.  (+info)

(5/286) Development of a hepatocyte-specific prostaglandin E(1) polymeric prodrug and its potential for preventing carbon tetrachloride-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice.

A polymeric prodrug of prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) was synthesized using galactosylated poly(L-glutamic acid hydrazide) (Gal-HZ-PLGA) as a biodegradable and targetable carrier to hepatocytes. Poly(L-glutamic acid hydrazide) was prepared by reacting poly(gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate) with hydrazine monohydrate, followed by reaction with 2-imino-2-methoxyethyl-1-thiogalactosides to obtain Gal-HZ-PLGA after i.v. injection. (111)In-labeled galactosylated poly(L-glutamic acid hydrazide) ((111)In-Gal-HZ-PLGA) rapidly accumulated in the liver in a dose-dependent manner, whereas (111)In-poly(L-glutamic acid hydrazide) did not, indicating the involvement of a galactose-specific mechanism in the uptake of (111)In-Gal-HZ-PLGA. Fractionation of liver cells revealed that (111)In-Gal-HZ-PLGA was preferentially taken up by liver parenchymal cells. After being taken up by the liver, (111)In-Gal-HZ-PLGA was gradually degraded, and radioactive metabolites with low molecular weight were detected within 10 min after injection. Then, PGE(1) or [(3)H]PGE(1) was coupled to Gal-HZ-PLGA via a hydrazone bond under mild conditions to obtain PGE(1) conjugate. After i.v. injection, [(3)H]PGE(1) conjugate was rapidly taken up by the liver (more than 80% of the dose). After injection of the conjugate, (3)H radioactivity remained in the liver, representing about 70% of the dose, even at 24 h, whereas little radioactivity remained in the organ at 1 h after the injection of free [(3)H]PGE(1). Finally, its pharmacological activity was examined in mice with fulminant hepatitis induced by peritoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride. The i.v. injection of PGE(1) conjugate at a dose of 1 mg (0.074 mg PGE(1))/kg effectively inhibited the increase of plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity, whereas twice this dose (0.15 mg/kg) of free PGE(1) had little effect. These results suggest that the PGE(1) conjugate is an excellent polymeric prodrug of PGE(1) for hepatitis therapy.  (+info)

(6/286) Current trends in cervical ripening and labor induction.

Labor is induced in more than 13 percent of deliveries in the United States. Postdate pregnancy is the most common indication. Oxytocin is the drug of choice for labor induction when the cervical examination shows that the cervix is favorable. The use of this agent requires experience and vigilant observation for uterine hyperstimulation, hypertonus or maternal fluid overload. In a patient whose cervix is unfavorable, the use of prostaglandin analogs for cervical ripening markedly enhances the success of inductions. Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analog marketed as a gastrointestinal mucosal protective agent, is safe, efficacious and inexpensive for use in cervical ripening and labor induction. Further studies will better delineate its optimal use. Family physicians need to be familiar with the various methods of cervical ripening and labor induction.  (+info)

(7/286) Identification of specific EP receptors responsible for the hemodynamic effects of PGE2.

To identify the E-prostanoid (EP) receptors that mediate the hemodynamic actions of PGE2, we studied acute vascular responses to infusions of PGE2 using lines of mice in which each of four EP receptors (EP1 through EP4) have been disrupted by gene targeting. In mixed groups of males and females, vasodepressor responses after infusions of PGE2 were significantly diminished in the EP2 -/- and EP4 -/- lines but not in the EP1 -/- or EP3 -/- lines. Because the actions of other hormonal systems that regulate blood pressure differ between sexes, we compared the roles of individual EP receptors in males and females. We found that the relative contribution of each EP-receptor subclass was strikingly different in males from that in females. In females, the EP2 and EP4 receptors, which signal by stimulating adenylate cyclase, mediate the major portion of the vasodepressor response to PGE2. In males, the EP2 receptor has a modest effect, but most of the vasodepressor effect is mediated by the phospholipase C-coupled EP1 receptor. Finally, in male mice, the EP3 receptor actively opposes the vasodepressor actions of PGE2. Thus the hemodynamic actions of PGE2 are mediated through complex interactions of several EP-receptor subtypes, and the role of individual EP receptors differs dramatically in males from that in females. These differences may contribute to sexual dimorphism of blood pressure regulation.  (+info)

(8/286) Vitamin E supplementation decreases basal levels of F(2)-isoprostanes and prostaglandin f(2alpha) in rats.

Lipid peroxidation is thought to be an important factor in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases and in the process of aging. We investigated the effects of supplementation with vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in rats. Both free radical-induced nonenzymatic- and cyclooxygenase-catalyzed enzymatic lipid peroxidation were investigated by measuring the levels of F(2)-isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF(2alpha)) and PGF(2alpha)-metabolite (15-K-DH-PGF(2alpha)), respectively, in blood, urine and liver. Samples were collected from control rats (n = 6) and from rats supplemented with vitamin E in the diet for 3 wk (n = 8, 20 g/kg diet of DL-alpha-tocopherol hydrogen succinate). Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration and antioxidative capacity were greater in the vitamin E-supplemented rats than in the control rats (17.9 +/- 1.7 vs. 50.4 +/- 10.4 micromol/L, P < 0.001 and 181 +/- 6 vs. 275 +/- 27 micromol/L trolox equivalents, P < 0.001). Urine 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) tended to be lower in the vitamin E-supplemented rats (0.72 +/- 0.40 vs. 0.34 +/- 0.19 nmol/mmol creatinine, P = 0.056). Urine 15-K-DH-PGF(2alpha) was lower due to vitamin E supplementation (0.97 +/- 0.38 vs. 0.56 +/- 0. 21 nmol/mmol creatinine, P < 0.05), as was liver-free 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) concentration (0.47 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.18 +/- 0.04 nmol/g, P < 0.001). Supplementation with vitamin E did not affect plasma 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) or 15-K-DH-PGF(2alpha) concentrations, liver total 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) or plasma malondialdehyde levels. Thus, vitamin E supplementation reduced urine basal levels of biomarkers of both nonenzymatic and enzymatic lipid peroxidation. In liver, vitamin E reduced the basal level of free 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) but not total 8-iso-PGF(2alpha).  (+info)