The effect of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and phenylbutazone on spermatogenesis in bulls.
To determine whether declining semen quality associated with health problems may be due to certain antibiotic or anti-inflammatory treatments, semen was collected 3 times per week for up to 42 d from 6 normal bulls after treatment with oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, dihydrostreptomycin, or phenylbutazone. No adverse effects on semen quality were observed. (+info)
Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. sennetsu, but not the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, colocalize with transferrin receptor and up-regulate transferrin receptor mRNA by activating iron-responsive protein 1.
Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. sennetsu are genetically divergent obligatory intracellular bacteria of human monocytes and macrophages, and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent is an obligatory intracellular bacterium of granulocytes. Infection with both E. chaffeensis and E. sennetsu, but not HGE agent, in the acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 almost completely inhibited by treatment with deferoxamine, a cell-permeable iron chelator. Transferrin receptors (TfRs) accumulated on both E. chaffeensis and E. sennetsu, but not HGE agent, inclusions in THP-1 cells or the cells of the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. Reverse transcription-PCR showed an increase in the level of TfR mRNA 6 h postinfection which peaked at 24 h postinfection with both E. chaffeensis and E. sennetsu infection in THP-1 or HL-60 cells. In contrast, HGE agent in THP-1 or HL-60 cells induced no increase in TfR mRNA levels. Heat treatment of E. chaffeensis or the addition of monodansylcadaverine, a transglutaminase inhibitor, 3 h prior to infection inhibited the up-regulation of TfR mRNA. The addition of oxytetracycline 6 h after E. chaffeensis infection caused a decrease in TfR mRNA which returned to the basal level by 24 h postinfection. These results indicate that both internalization and continuous proliferation of ehrlichial organisms or the production of ehrlichial proteins are required for the up-regulation of TfR mRNA. Results of electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that both E. chaffeensis and E. sennetsu infection increased the binding activity of iron-responsive protein 1 (IRP-1) to the iron-responsive element at 6 h postinfection and remained elevated at 24 h postinfection. However, HGE agent infection had no effect on IRP-1 binding activity. This result suggests that activation of IRP-1 and subsequent stabilization of TfR mRNA comprise the mechanism of TfR mRNA up-regulation by E. chaffeensis and E. sennetsu infection. (+info)
Spiramycin is comparable to oxytetracycline in eradicating H. pylori when given with ranitidine bismuth citrate and metronidazole.
BACKGROUND: We have consistently achieved about 90% eradication of H. pylori with liquid bismuth, metronidazole and oxytetracycline. AIM: To test eradication and adverse events of ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) when given with metronidazole and either oxytetracycline or spiramycin. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-three patients were randomized to one of four 10-day regimens: RBC400OM: RBC 400 mg b.d., oxytetracycline 500 mg q.d.s.; RBC400SM: RBC 400 mg b.d., spiramycin 1 g q.d.s.; RBC200OM: RBC 200 mg q.d.s., oxytetracycline 500 mg q.d.s.; RBC200SM: RBC 200 mg q.d.s., spiramycin 1 g q.d.s. Additionally, all patients received metronidazole 400 mg q.d.s. A 14C-urea breath test was performed at 8 weeks. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat eradication rates were 94%, 91%, 94% and 89% with RBC400OM, RBC400SM, RBC200OM and RBC200SM, respectively (P = 0.81). Eradication was significantly higher in ulcer patients (97%) than in those with diagnoses other than ulcer (86%) (P = 0.009). There was a strong tendency to better eradication among those who had never smoked (100%) compared with ex-smokers (93%) and smokers (89%) (P = 0.06). Fifty-three per cent experienced at least one moderate or severe adverse event, and women had more adverse events than men (P = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: All four regimens had comparable efficacy and adverse events. Eradication was significantly better in ulcer patients but there was a trend to better eradication in those who smoked less, used less alcohol and exercised more. Adverse events were frequent, perhaps because of the large dose of metronidazole used, but few patients stopped treatment. (+info)
Phosphate control of oxytetracycline production by Streptomyces rimosus is at the level of transcription from promoters overlapped by tandem repeats similar to those of the DNA-binding sites of the OmpR family.
Physiological studies have shown that Streptomyces rimosus produces the polyketide antibiotic oxytetracycline abundantly when its mycelial growth is limited by phosphate starvation. We show here that transcripts originating from the promoter for one of the biosynthetic genes, otcC (encoding anhydrotetracycline oxygenase), and from a promoter for the divergent otcX genes peak in abundance at the onset of antibiotic production induced by phosphate starvation, indicating that the synthesis of oxytetracycline is controlled, at least in part, at the level of transcription. Furthermore, analysis of the sequences of the promoters for otcC, otcX, and the polyketide synthase (otcY) genes revealed tandem repeats having significant similarity to the DNA-binding sites of ActII-Orf4 and DnrI, which are Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins (SARPs) related to the OmpR family of transcription activators. Together, the above results suggest that oxytetracycline production by S. rimosus requires a SARP-like transcription factor that is either produced or activated or both under conditions of low phosphate concentrations. We also provide evidence consistent with the otrA resistance gene being cotranscribed with otcC as part of a polycistronic message, suggesting a simple mechanism of coordinate regulation which ensures that resistance to the antibiotic increases in proportion to production. (+info)
The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastro-oesophageal reflux.
BACKGROUND: Increased prevalence of oesophagitis has been reported following eradication of Helicobacter pylori. We hypothesized that H. pylori eradication might increase gastro-oesophageal acid reflux in patients with reflux oesophagitis. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients (13 male, 12 female) with H. pylori infection and reflux oesophagitis grade I (22 patients) or II (three patients) were enrolled; mean age 49.9 (range 33-75) years. Twenty-four hour intra-oesophageal pH recording was performed before and 12 weeks after eradication of H. pylori, which was achieved using bismuth subnitrate suspension 150 mg q.d.s., oxytetracycline 500 mg q.d.s. and metronidazole 400 mg t.d.s. for 10 days. Eradication was confirmed by 14C-urea breath test 12 weeks after completion of treatment. The patients did not receive acid-suppressive medication. RESULTS: All patients had abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux before anti-H. pylori treatment. After treatment, there was no significant change in the percentage of total time oesophageal pH < 4 (P=0.46) in the 23 patients in whom the infection had been cured. Nine of the cured patients had increased acid exposure, whereas 14 had decreased acid exposure. No significant change in reflux symptom scores was found. There was no relationship between change in acid exposure and symptom improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks after H. pylori eradication there was no consistent change in gastro-oesophageal acid reflux in patients with mild or moderate reflux oesophagitis. (+info)
Disruption of an aromatase/cyclase from the oxytetracycline gene cluster of Streptomyces rimosus results in production of novel polyketides with shorter chain lengths.
Oxytetracycline is a polyketide antibiotic made by Streptomyces rimosus. From DNA sequencing, the gene product of otcD1 is deduced to function as a bifunctional cyclase/aromatase involved in ring closure of the polyketide backbone. Although otcD1 is contiguous with the ketoreductase gene, they are located an unusually large distance from the genes encoding the "minimal polyketide synthase" of the oxytetracycline gene cluster. A recombinant, disrupted in the genomic copy of otcD1, made four novel polyketides, all of shorter chain length (by up to 10 carbons) than oxytetracycline. All four novel structures contained the unusual carboxamido group, typical of oxytetracycline. This implies that the carboxamido group is present at the start of biosynthesis of oxytetracycline, a topic that has been debated in the literature. Loss of the cyclase protein has a profound influence on the length of polyketide chain assembled, implying that OtcD1 plays a greater role in the overall integrity of the quaternary structure of the polyketide complex than hitherto imagined. (+info)
Subclinical chlamydial infection of the female mouse genital tract generates a potent protective immune response: implications for development of live attenuated chlamydial vaccine strains.
Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted disease (STD) for which a vaccine is needed. CD4(+) T-helper type 1 (Th1) cell-mediated immunity is an important component of protective immunity against murine chlamydial genital infection. Conventional vaccine approaches have not proven effective in eliciting chlamydial-specific CD4 Th1 immunity at the genital mucosa. Thus, it is possible that the development of a highly efficacious vaccine against genital infection will depend on the generation of a live attenuated C. trachomatis vaccine. Attenuated strains of C. trachomatis do not exist, so their potential utility as vaccines cannot be tested in animal models of infection. We have developed a surrogate model to study the effect of chlamydial attenuation on infection and immunity of the female genital tract by treating mice with a subchlamydiacidal concentration of oxytetracycline following vaginal infection. Compared to untreated control mice, antibiotic-treated mice shed significantly fewer infectious organisms (3 log(10)) from the cervico-vagina, produced a minimal inflammatory response in urogenital tissue, and did not experience infection-related sequelae. Antibiotic-treated mice generated levels of chlamydia-specific antibody and cell-mediated immunity equivalent to those of control mice. Importantly, antibiotic-treated mice were found to be as immune as control untreated mice when rechallenged vaginally. These findings demonstrate that subclinical chlamydial infection of the murine female genital tract is sufficient to stimulate a potent protective immune response. They also present indirect evidence supporting the possible use of live attenuated chlamydial organisms in the development of vaccines against chlamydial STDs. (+info)
Copper/zinc-Superoxide dismutase is required for oxytetracycline resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, along with other eukaryotes, is resistant to tetracyclines. We found that deletion of SOD1 (encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) rendered S. cerevisiae hypersensitive to oxytetracycline (OTC): a sod1Delta mutant exhibited a >95% reduction in colony-forming ability at an OTC concentration of 20 microg ml(-1), whereas concentrations of up to 1,000 microg ml(-1) had no effect on the growth of the wild type. OTC resistance was restored in the sod1Delta mutant by complementation with wild-type SOD1. The effect of OTC appeared to be cytotoxic and was not evident in a ctt1Delta (cytosolic catalase) mutant or in the presence of tetracycline. SOD1 transcription was not induced by OTC, suggesting that constitutive SOD1 expression is sufficient for wild-type OTC resistance. OTC uptake levels in wild-type and sod1Delta strains were similar. However, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were both enhanced during exposure of the sod1Delta mutant, but not the wild type, to OTC. We propose that Sod1p protects S. cerevisiae against a mode of OTC action that is dependent on oxidative damage. (+info)