(1/26) Oncocytic biliary cystadenocarcinoma is a form of intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm of the liver.
Biliary cystadenocarcinoma with oncocytic differentiation was first reported in 1992. This is a report of a second case. The patient (a 71-year-old man) was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal fullness. Multicystic lesions were identified in the left hepatic lobe radiologically. The patient died of peritoneal dissemination of carcinoma 20 months later. At autopsy, the tumor of the left hepatic lobe was found to be composed of adjoining multiple cystic lesions and a solid lesion with infiltration of the hepatic hilus and peritoneal dissemination. Histologically, the multicystic lesions were covered by papillary neoplastic epithelial cells with an eosinophilic granular cytoplasm resembling that of oncocytes and a fine fibrovascular core. The cyst wall was fibrous, but there was no mesenchymal stroma. In the solid lesion and infiltrated areas, acidophilic and granular carcinoma cells formed small glandular or solid cord patterns with much mucin secretion (mucinous carcinoma). Immunohistochemically, carcinoma cells of both components were found to contain many mitochondria and showed the phenotypes of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Interestingly, the intrahepatic biliary tree also was invaded by carcinoma cells. This may be a case of intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm of the left hepatic lobe followed by secondary cystic dilatation of the affected bile duct. (+info)
(2/26) The usefulness of 99mTc-SestaMIBI scan in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules with oncocytic cytology.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relevance of (99m)Tc-SestaMIBI (MIBI) scan in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules with oncocytic cytology. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with a single (or prevalent) 'cold' solid nodule with Hurthle cells (HC) at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were studied. Cytological diagnosis of oncocytic metaplasia (OM) or HC tumor (HCT) was made when HC on the smear were comprised 10-75%, or >75%. Nodules concentrating MIBI at early and late (2 h after washout) stages were considered MIBI-positive. In all cases histological findings were obtained after total thyroidectomy. RESULTS: FNAC was malignant or suspect for malignancy in 16 cases (six HCT and 10 OM) and not suspect in eight (two HCT and six OM). Histological examination revealed 14 malignant tumors (11 HCT and three OM), and 10 benign thyroid lesions (three HCT and seven OM). Sensitivity of FNAC for malignancy was 92.8% and specificity was 70.0%; HCT were identified by FNAC in only 35.7% and OM in 70.0% of cases. No significant difference in MIBI positivity was found between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. The highest percentage of MIBI positivity was found in HCT (78.5%), but MIBI-positive nodules were also observed in thyroid lesions with HC metaplasia (40.0%). CONCLUSIONS: MIBI scintiscan has no value in differentiating malignant from benign HC thyroid neoplasias. Most HCT are MIBI-positive, but this scan is not sufficiently specific to differentiate true HC neoplasias from other thyroid lesions showing HC at FNAC, although an MIBI-negative scan strongly supports the absence of true HCT. (+info)
(3/26) Apoptosis and P53, Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression in parathyroid glands of patients with hyperparathyroidism.
Altogether 107 patients were operated on at the Department of Transplantation and Surgery of Semmelweis University in the past four years, for clinical symptoms of hyperparathyroidism. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients supported the diagnosis of primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Chronically impaired renal function was found in 52 cases. The removed parathyroid glands showed hyperplasia in 54, adenoma in 50 and carcinoma in 3 cases. The majority of parathyroid lesions in primary hyperparathyroidism were adenomas (41 cases) and in secondary hyperparathyroidism were hyperplasias (43 cases). The ratio of oxyphil to chief cells as well as occasional mitotic and apoptotic figures were determined. The oxyphil component was present in both hyperplastic and tumorous lesions. Apoptosis and mitosis were rarely seen in hyperplasias and adenomas (under 2%), whereas in carcinomas 3% of the tumor cells were apoptotic and 4% showed mitosis. Cytoplasmic p53 positivity could be observed in 3 of the adenomas and in 2 of the hyperplasias. The carcinomas, four adenomas and 3 hyperplasias showed nuclear p53 positivity. Bcl-2 and Bax were detected in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells in the majority of adenomas and in the cells of hyperplasias. Oxyphil cells were more frequently positive than chief cells or clear cells. Colocalization of Bcl-2 and Bax was found randomly in all types of lesions. The very low incidence of carcinoma, the low mitotic and apoptotic ratio in adenomas and hyperplasias suggest a potent antiproliferative defense mechanism in the parathyroid cell population. This may also be reflected in the cytoplasmic colocalization of various gene products which regulate cell death and cell proliferation. No significant differences in the p53, Bcl-2 and Bax spectrum were found between the primary and secondary (i.e. renal failure) parathyroid alterations. (+info)
(4/26) Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland: A cytomorphologic study of 139 cases with statistical analysis.
BACKGROUND: Lesions of the thyroid gland composed of Hurthle cells encompass pathologic entities ranging from hyperplastic nodules with Hurthle cell metaplasia to Hurthle cell carcinomas. The cytologic distinction between these entities can be diagnostically challenging. Many cytologic features of Hurthle cell lesions that distinguish neoplastic Hurthle cell lesions requiring surgery from those that are benign and nonneoplastic have been described, but with variable usefulness. This is due, in part, to the small numbers of cases examined in previous studies and the limited application of statistical analysis. A morphologic study was made of 139 Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland and statistical analysis applied to identify a set of cytomorphologic features that distinguish benign Hurthle cell lesions (BHCL) from Hurthle cell neoplasms (HCN). METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of thyroid nodules with a predominant Hurthle cell component and corresponding histologic followup were included in the study. Cases were divided into BHCL and HCN groups on the basis of the histologic diagnosis. All cases were reviewed to assess the following 14 cytologic features: overall cellularity, cytoarchitecture, percentage of Hurthle cells, percentage of single cells, percentage of follicular cells observed as naked Hurthle cell nuclei, background colloid, chronic inflammation, cystic change, transgressing blood vessels (TBV), intracytoplasmic lumina, presence of multinucleated Hurthle cells, nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear pleomorphism/atypia, and nucleolar prominence. The results were evaluated by using univariate and stepwise logistic regression (SLR) analysis; statistical significance was achieved at P-values < 0.05. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine FNAB specimens, corresponding to 56 HCN and 83 BHCL, fulfilled the study criteria. Six of the 14 cytologic features evaluated were shown by univariate analysis to be statistically significant in predicting HCN: nonmacrofollicular architecture (P < 0.001), absence of background colloid (P < 0.001), absence of chronic inflammation (P < 0.001), presence of TBV (P < 0.001), > 90% Hurthle cells (P < 0.001), and >10% single Hurthle cells (P = 0.014). The first four of these features were also shown to be statistically significant in the SLR analysis (P = 0.005, 0.010, 0.016, and 0.045, respectively), and when all four of these features were present HCN was correctly identified 86% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study of 139 FNAB specimens of thyroid Hurthle cell nodules, 14 cytologic features were examined and 6 were found to be statistically significant in identifying HCN. The following four features, when found in combination, were found to be highly predictive of HCN: nonmacrofollicular architecture, absence of colloid, absence of inflammation, and presence of TBV. (+info)
(5/26) Rectal adenocarcinoma with oncocytic features: possible relationship with preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
BACKGROUND: The introduction of preoperative chemoradiation into the treatment protocol of rectal adenocarcinomas has affected the microscopical morphology in subsequent resection specimens. The constellation of histopathological changes is varied and well documented. AIM: To describe oncocytic change in rectal cancers that have been treated with chemoradiation before surgery. METHODS: 7 of 54 patients with rectal cancer were identified with a history of chemoradiation, specifically directed to the rectal tumours in fractions of 4500-5000 cGy of radiation and 5-fluorouracil. The rectal tumours in five of these seven patients were composed of oncocytes that constituted 30-80% of the cancers. The patients were three men and two women aged 65-73 years, all with T3 N0 tumours. The intervals between chemoradiation and resection varied from 3 to 12 weeks. RESULTS: The tumour cells conformed to oncocytes morphologically (large size with abundant, granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei and prominent acidophilic nucleoli), immunohistochemically (positive for carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 20 and caudal type homeo box transcription factor 2, but negative for both chromogranin and synaptophysin) and ultrastructurally (large cells showing tight junctions, cytoplasmic engorgement by mitochondria and absence of neurosecretory granules). CONCLUSIONS: The changes in these cells differ from those described previously in endocrine cells encountered in pretreated rectal cancers. Oncocytic change in this particular clinical context occurs as a reflection of cytotoxic damage or cellular hypoxia induced by chemoradiation resulting in degeneration of the cell and the oncocytic phenotype. Oncocytic change may be an under-recognised histopathological change in rectal cancers receiving preoperative chemoradiation. (+info)
(6/26) Oncocytic change in pleomorphic adenoma: molecular evidence in support of an origin in neoplastic cells.
BACKGROUND: Cells with oncocytic change (OC) are a common finding in salivary glands (SGs) and in SG tumours. When found within pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), cells with OC may be perceived as evidence of malignancy, and lead to a misdiagnosis of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CaExPa). AIM: To describe a case of PA with atypical OC, resembling a CaExPa. A genomewide molecular analysis was carried out to compare the molecular genetic features of the two components and to determine whether the oncocytic cells originated from PA cells, entrapped normal cells, or whether these cells constitute an independent tumour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Representative blocks were immunohistochemically analysed with antibodies raised against cytokeratin (Ck) 5/6, Ck8/18, Ck14, vimentin, p63, alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA), S100 protein, anti-mitochondria antibody, beta-catenin, HER2, Ki67, p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor. Typical areas of PA and OC were microdissected and subjected to microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH). Chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) was performed with in-house generated probes to validate the aCGH findings. RESULTS: PA cells showed the typical immunohistochemical profile, including positivity for Ck5/6, Ck8/18, Ck14, vimentin, ASMA, S100 protein, p63, epidermal growth factor receptor and beta-catenin, whereas oncocytic cells showed a luminal phenotype, expression of anti-mitochondria antibody and reduced beta-catenin staining. Both components showed low proliferation rates and lacked p53 reactivity. aCGH revealed a similar amplification in both components, mapping to 12q13.3-q21.1, which was further validated by CISH. No HER2 gene amplification or overexpression was observed. The foci of oncocytic metaplasia showed an additional low-level gain of 6p25.2-p21.31. CONCLUSION: The present data demonstrate that the bizarre atypical cells of the present case show evidence of clonality but no features of malignancy. In addition, owing to the presence of a similar genome amplification pattern in both components, it is proposed that at least in some cases, OC may originate from PA cells. (+info)
(7/26) Interobserver variability with the interpretation of thyroid FNA specimens showing predominantly Hurthle cells.
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is used for the diagnosis and triaging of thyroid lesions. Recently, it has been shown that the pathologic interpretation of selected thyroid specimens can show a high degree of interobserver variability (IV). Because Hurthle cells may be seen in neoplastic and nonneoplastic disease, we investigated whether pathologists consistently interpret FNA specimens from these lesions. In the present study, 22 FNA specimens that showed Hurthle cells as the predominant cell type were reviewed by 7 pathologists. Cytologic features were assessed semiquantitatively. IV was calculated, and individual case diagnoses were compared with cytologic features. IV was high before diagnoses were collapsed into like diagnoses and triage recommendations (k = 0.17, 0.44, and 0.51, respectively). Overall cellularity, number of Hurthle cells, and number of lymphocytes all correlated with collapsed diagnostic agreement, and the number of air-dried rapid Romanowsky-stained slides, overall cellularity, number of Hurthle cells, and number of lymphocytes all correlated with collapsed triage recommendations. (+info)
(8/26) Disruptive mitochondrial DNA mutations in complex I subunits are markers of oncocytic phenotype in thyroid tumors.
Oncocytic tumors are a distinctive class of proliferative lesions composed of cells with a striking degree of mitochondrial hyperplasia that are particularly frequent in the thyroid gland. To understand whether specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are associated with the accumulation of mitochondria, we sequenced the entire mtDNA in 50 oncocytic lesions (45 thyroid tumors of epithelial cell derivation and 5 mitochondrion-rich breast tumors) and 52 control cases (21 nononcocytic thyroid tumors, 15 breast carcinomas, and 16 gliomas) by using recently developed technology that allows specific and reliable amplification of the whole mtDNA with quick mutation scanning. Thirteen oncocytic lesions (26%) presented disruptive mutations (nonsense or frameshift), whereas only two samples (3.8%) presented such mutations in the nononcocytic control group. In one case with multiple thyroid nodules analyzed separately, a disruptive mutation was found in the only nodule with oncocytic features. In one of the five mitochondrion-rich breast tumors, a disruptive mutation was identified. All disruptive mutations were found in complex I subunit genes, and the association between these mutations and the oncocytic phenotype was statistically significant (P=0.001). To study the pathogenicity of these mitochondrial mutations, primary cultures from oncocytic tumors and corresponding normal tissues were established. Electron microscopy and biochemical and molecular analyses showed that primary cultures derived from tumors bearing disruptive mutations failed to maintain the mutations and the oncocytic phenotype. We conclude that disruptive mutations in complex I subunits are markers of thyroid oncocytic tumors. (+info)