Arterial blood gas tensions during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
Arterial blood gas tensions were measured before and during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with (group I) and without (group 2) sedation with intravenous diazepam. There was a highly significant fall in the PaO2, which occurred in both groups and was therefore not attributable to diazepam. Measurement of FEV, and FVC before endoscopy had no predictive value for those patients whose PaO2 fell the most. (+info)
In vitro development of sheep preantral follicles.
Preantral ovarian follicles isolated from prepubertal sheep ovaries were individually cultured for 6 days in the presence of increasing doses of FSH (ranging from 0.01 to 1 microg/ml) and under two different oxygen concentrations, 20% and 5% O2. Follicle development was evaluated on the basis of antral cavity formation as well as the presence of healthy cumulus oocyte complexes. Follicle growth was enhanced by FSH addition to culture medium, while the use of a low oxygen concentration slightly stimulated this process. However, when follicles were cultured in the presence of high doses of FSH (1 microgram/ml) and under low oxygen concentration, a high proportion of them showed the presence of an antral cavity and of a healthy cumulus-oocyte complex. In addition, under this specific culture condition sheep preantral follicles released higher levels of estradiol as compared to those secreted at lower FSH concentrations or under 20% O2. When the meiotic competence of oocytes derived from follicles cultured at 1 microgram/ml FSH was assessed, no significant difference was recorded between the two oxygen groups. These results show that the culture conditions here identified are beneficial to in vitro growth and differentiation of sheep preantral follicles. (+info)
Endogenous plasma endothelin concentrations and coronary circulation in patients with mild dilated cardiomyopathy.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients (eight male/six female; mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with IDCM (ejection fraction 36 (9)%) and five normotensive subjects (two male/three female; age 52 (7) years) serving as controls were studied. METHODS: Functional status was classified according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Endogenous ET-1 and BET plasma concentrations from the aorta and the coronary sinus were determined by radioimmunoassay. Coronary blood flow, using the inert chromatographic argon method, myocardial oxygen consumption, and coronary sinus oxygen content under basal conditions were determined. RESULTS: In the aorta, mean (SD) concentrations of ET-1 (IDCM 0.76 (0.25) v controls 0.31 (0.06) fmol/ml; p = 0.002) and BET (IDCM 3.58 (1.06) v controls 2.11 (0.58) fmol/ml; p = 0.014) were increased in patients with IDCM. Aortic ET-1 concentrations correlated positively with NYHA class (r = 0. 731; p < 0.001), myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.749; p < 0. 001), and coronary blood flow (r = 0.645; p = 0.003), but inversely with coronary sinus oxygen content (r = -0.633; p = 0.004), which was significantly decreased in IDCM patients (IDCM 4.68 (1.05) v controls 6.70 (1.06) vol%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The coronary circulation in patients with IDCM is exposed to an increased endothelin load. ET-1 concentrations correlate with functional deterioration. A decrease of the coronary sinus content of oxygen suggests a mismatch between coronary blood flow and metabolic demand. Thus, ET-1 might be a marker of a disequilibrium between myocardial oxygen demand and coronary blood flow in IDCM. (+info)
Quantification of tumour vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements.
Despite the possibility that tumour hypoxia may limit radiotherapeutic response, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A new methodology has been developed in which information from several sophisticated techniques is combined and analysed at a microregional level. First, tumour oxygen availability is spatially defined by measuring intravascular blood oxygen saturations (HbO2) cryospectrophotometrically in frozen tumour blocks. Second, hypoxic development is quantified in adjacent sections using immunohistochemical detection of a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) to a nitroheterocyclic hypoxia marker (EF5), thereby providing information relating to both the oxygen consumption rates and the effective oxygen diffusion distances. Third, a combination of fluorescent (Hoechst 33342 or DiOC7(3)) and immunohistological (PECAM-1/CD31) stains is used to define the anatomical vascular densities and the fraction of blood vessels containing flow. Using a computer-interfaced microscope stage, image analysis software and a 3-CCD colour video camera, multiple images are digitized, combined to form a photo-montage and revisited after each of the three staining protocols. By applying image registration techniques, the spatial distribution of HbO2 saturations is matched to corresponding hypoxic marker intensities in adjacent sections. This permits vascular configuration to be related to oxygen availability and allows the hypoxic marker intensities to be quantitated in situ. (+info)
The respiratory responses of Carcinus maenas to declining oxygen tension.
The degree of respiratory independence shown by Carcinus under conditions of declining oxygen tension is dependent on the animal's level of activity. Inactive Carcinus are capable of maintaining respiratory independence down to a Po2 of 60-80 mmHg. This is achieved primarily by an increase in ventilation volume such that the amount of oxygen made available at the respiratory surfaces remains constant over a wide range of oxygen tension. The Po2 at which this can no longer be maintained corresponds closely to the Po2 at which respiratory independence is lost. Under normoxic conditions the Po2 of the post- and prebranchial blood was 97 and 18 mmHg respectively. At the high oxygen tensions prevailing in the postbranchial blood the respiratory pigment is fully saturated. Under conditions of declining oxygen tension the heart rate remains more or less constant until the Po2 reaches 60-80 mmHg, the onset of bradycardia coinciding with the loss of saturation of the haemocyanin. Although cardiac output falls during hypoxia, the capacity rate ratio remains approximately constant, which enables the effectiveness of oxygen uptake by the blood to remain at a high level. (+info)
Active transport of calcium across the isolated midgut of Hyalophora cecropia.
1. The net flux of 45Ca from lumen to blood side across the isolated and short-circuited Cecropia midgut was 1-9 +/- 0-2 muequiv. cm-2h-1 in 8 mM Ca and the flux ratio was as high as 56 to 1. 2. The calcium influx was depressed by anoxia; 73% after 30 min. 3. The kinetics of Ca transport were anomalous; the apparent Km varied with Ca concentration from less than 0-2 to greater than 5-6 mM Ca and the apparent Vmax varied from less than 1-3 to greater than 3-3 muequiv. cm-2h-1. 4. The calcium influx showed a delay before the tracer steady state was attained, indicating the existence in the transport route of a calcium pool equivalent to 5-7 muequiv/g. wet weight of midgut tissue. 5 High calcium (16 mM) depressed the short-circuit current and potassium transport from blood to lumen side across the midgut. 6. Calcium depressed magnesium transport, from lumen to blood side across the midgut, and magnesium depressed the calcium transport. 7. Ca transport by the midgut does not regulate the Ca level in the haemolymph in vivo; it merely aids the diffusion of calcium down its electrochemical gradient. However, Ca transport may assist the uptake of the nutrients from the midgut contents. (+info)
2,3 diphosphoglycerate in Parkinson's disease.
The red cell 2,3 DPG, the most important factor for oxygen delivery in the tissues, was found to be increased in Parkinsonism patients compared with controls. The aging process seems not to be a factor in the increased 2,3 DPG concentration. Other factors relevant to raised 2,3 DPG level such as physical activity, increased oxygen requirements, and metabolic changes are discussed. (+info)
Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase.
Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations. (+info)