Pannexin-1 couples to maitotoxin- and nigericin-induced interleukin-1beta release through a dye uptake-independent pathway. (65/156)

Pannexin-1 is a recently identified membrane protein that can act as a nonselective pore permeable to dyes such as ethidium when ectopically expressed. Blockade of pannexin-1 in macrophage endogenously expressing the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) blocks the initial dye uptake, but not the ionic current, and also blocks processing and release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in response to P2X7R activation. These results suggest that pannexin-1 may be a hemichannel activated by the P2X7R to provide the conduit for dye uptake and downstream signaling to processing and release of IL-1beta. We have pursued this hypothesis by measuring dye uptake and IL-1beta processing and release in mouse J774 macrophage in response to P2X7R activation and to maitotoxin and nigericin, two agents considered to evoke IL-1beta release via the same mechanism. The experiments were carried out over time periods during which no lactate dehydrogenase was released from cells to examine only noncytolytic pathways. P2X7R activation evoked dye uptake that could be separated into two components by pannexin-1 inhibition: an initial rapid phase and a slower pannexin-1-independent phase. Maitotoxin-evoked dye uptake was unaltered by pannexin-1 inhibition. Nigericin did not induce dye uptake. Inhibition of pannexin-1 blocked caspase-1 and IL-1beta processing and release in response to all three stimuli. Thus, although pannexin-1 is required for IL-1beta release in response to maitotoxin, nigericin, and ATP, a mechanism distinct from pannexin-1 hemichannel activation must underlie the former two processes.  (+info)

Sequential degradation of alphaII and betaII spectrin by calpain in glutamate or maitotoxin-stimulated cells. (66/156)

Calpain-catalyzed proteolysis of II-spectrin is a regulated event associated with neuronal long-term potentiation, platelet and leukocyte activation, and other processes. Calpain proteolysis is also linked to apoptotic and nonapoptotic cell death following excessive glutamate exposure, hypoxia, HIV-gp120/160 exposure, or toxic injury. The molecular basis for these divergent consequences of calpain action, and their relationship to spectrin proteolysis, is unclear. Calpain preferentially cleaves II spectrin in vitro in repeat 11 between residues Y1176 and G1177. Unless stimulated by Ca++ and calmodulin (CaM), betaII spectrin proteolysis in vitro is much slower. We identify additional unrecognized sites in spectrin targeted by calpain in vitro and in vivo. Bound CaM induces a second II spectrin cleavage at G1230*S1231. BetaII spectrin is cleaved at four sites. One cleavage only occurs in the absence of CaM at high enzyme-to-substrate ratios near the betaII spectrin COOH-terminus. CaM promotes II spectrin cleavages at Q1440*S1441, S1447*Q1448, and L1482*A1483. These sites are also cleaved in the absence of CaM in recombinant II spectrin fusion peptides, indicating that they are probably shielded in the spectrin heterotetramer and become exposed only after CaM binds alphaII spectrin. Using epitope-specific antibodies prepared to the calpain cleavage sites in both alphaII and betaII spectrin, we find in cultured rat cortical neurons that brief glutamate exposure (a physiologic ligand) rapidly stimulates alphaII spectrin cleavage only at Y1176*G1177, while II spectrin remains intact. In cultured SH-SY5Y cells that lack an NMDA receptor, glutamate is without effect. Conversely, when stimulated by calcium influx (via maitotoxin), there is rapid and sequential cleavage of alphaII and then betaII spectrin, coinciding with the onset of nonapoptotic cell death. These results identify (i) novel calpain target sites in both alphaII and betaII spectrin; (ii) trans-regulation of proteolytic susceptibility between the spectrin subunits in vivo; and (iii) the preferential cleavage of alphaII spectrin vs betaII spectrin when responsive cells are stimulated by engagement of the NMDA receptor. We postulate that calpain proteolysis of spectrin can activate two physiologically distinct responses: one that enhances skeletal plasticity without destroying the spectrin-actin skeleton, characterized by preservation of betaII spectrin; or an alternative response closely correlated with nonapoptotic cell death and characterized by proteolysis of betaII spectrin and complete dissolution of the spectrin skeleton.  (+info)

Aerosolized red-tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma. (67/156)

BACKGROUND: With the increasing incidence of asthma, there is increasing concern over environmental exposures that may trigger asthma exacerbations. Blooms of the marine microalgae, Karenia brevis, cause red tides (or harmful algal blooms) annually throughout the Gulf of Mexico. K brevis produces highly potent natural polyether toxins, called brevetoxins, which are sodium channel blockers, and possibly histamine activators. In experimental animals, brevetoxins cause significant bronchoconstriction. In humans, a significant increase in self-reported respiratory symptoms has been described after recreational and occupational exposures to Florida red-tide aerosols, particularly among individuals with asthma. METHODS: Before and after 1 h spent on beaches with and without an active K brevis red-tide exposure, 97 persons >or= 12 years of age with physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated by questionnaire and spirometry. Concomitant environmental monitoring, water and air sampling, and personal monitoring for brevetoxins were performed. RESULTS: Participants were significantly more likely to report respiratory symptoms after K brevis red-tide aerosol exposure than before exposure. Participants demonstrated small, but statistically significant, decreases in FEV(1), midexpiratory phase of forced expiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow after exposure, particularly among those participants regularly using asthma medications. No significant differences were detected when there was no Florida red tide (ie, during nonexposure periods). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated objectively measurable adverse changes in lung function from exposure to aerosolized Florida red-tide toxins in asthmatic subjects, particularly among those requiring regular therapy with asthma medications. Future studies will assess these susceptible subpopulations in more depth, as well as the possible long-term effects of these toxins.  (+info)

An electrochemiluminescence-based competitive displacement immunoassay for the type-2 brevetoxins in oyster extracts. (68/156)

A new competitive electrochemiluminescence-based immunoassay for the type-2 brevetoxins in oyster extracts was developed. The assay was verified by spiking known amounts of PbTx-3 into 80% methanol extracts of Gulf Coast oysters. We also provide preliminary data demonstrating that 100% acetone extracts, aqueous homogenates, and the clinical matrixes urine and serum can also be analyzed without significant matrix interferences. The assay offers the advantages of speed ( 2 h analysis time); simplicity (only 2 additions, one incubation period, and no wash steps before analysis); low limit of quantitation (conservatively, 50 pg/mL = 1 ng/g tissue equivalents); and a stable, nonradioactive label. Due to the variety of brevetoxin metabolites present and the lack of certified reference standards for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmation, a true validation of brevetoxins in shellfish extracts is not possible at this time. However, our assay correlated well with another brevetoxin immunoassay currently in use in the United States. We believe this assay could be useful as a regulatory screening tool and could support pharmacokinetic studies in animals and clinical evaluation of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning victims.  (+info)

Gambierol acts as a functional antagonist of neurotoxin site 5 on voltage-gated sodium channels in cerebellar granule neurons. (69/156)

The marine toxin gambierol, a polyether ladder toxin derived from the marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, was evaluated for interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) cultures. At concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 10 microM, gambierol alone had no effect on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i of exposed CGN cultures. Furthermore, there was no evidence of neurotoxicity in CGN cultures exposed for 2 h to gambierol (1 nM-10 microM). However, gambierol was a potent inhibitor (IC50 = 189 nM) of the elevation of [Ca2+]i that accompanies exposure of CGN cultures to the VGSC activator brevetoxin-2 (PbTx-2). To further explore the potential interaction of gambierol with VGSCs, the influence of gambierol on PbTx-2-induced neurotoxicity was assessed. Gambierol reduced the PbTx-2-induced efflux of lactate dehydrogenase in exposed CGN cultures in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 471 nM). It is noteworthy that the potencies of gambierol as an inhibitor of both PbTx-2-induced Ca2+ influx and cytotoxicity were coincident. Finally, the inhibitory effects of gambierol on PbTx-2-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i were compared with those of brevenal, a natural inhibitor of the toxic effects of brevetoxin isolated from cultures of Karina brevis. Like gambierol, brevenal inhibited PbTx-2-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 108.6 nM). These results provide evidence for gambierol acting as a functional antagonist of neurotoxin site 5 on neuronal VGSCs.  (+info)

TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. (70/156)

Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these "food-chain diseases", for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions.  (+info)

Brevetoxins, like ciguatoxins, are potent ichthyotoxic neurotoxins that accumulate in fish. (71/156)

Brevetoxins and ciguatoxins are closely related potent marine neurotoxins. Although ciguatoxins accumulate in fish to levels that are dangerous for human consumption, live fish have not been considered as potential sources of brevetoxin exposure in humans. Here we show that, analogous to ciguatoxins, brevetoxins can accumulate in live fish by dietary transfer. We experimentally identify two pathways leading to brevetoxin-contaminated omnivorous and planktivorous fish. Fish fed with toxic shellfish and Karenia brevis cultures remained healthy and accumulated high brevetoxin levels in their tissues (up to 2675 ng g(-1) in viscera and 1540 ng g(-1) in muscle). Repeated collections of fish from St. Joseph Bay in the Florida panhandle reveal that accumulation of brevetoxins in healthy fish occurs in the wild. We observed that levels of brevetoxins in the muscle of fish at all trophic levels rise significantly, but not to dangerous levels, during a K. brevis bloom. Concentrations were highest in fish liver and stomach contents, and increased during and immediately following the bloom. The persistence of brevetoxins in the fish food web was followed for 1 year after the K. brevis bloom.  (+info)

Brevetoxin-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and Src in murine neocortical neurons involves distinct signaling pathways. (72/156)

Brevetoxins (PbTx-1 to PbTx-10) are potent lipid soluble polyether neurotoxins produced by the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Brevetoxins bind to site 5 of the alpha-subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and augment Na(+) influx. In neocortical neurons brevetoxins elevate intracellular Ca(2+) and augment NMDA receptor signaling. In this study, we explored the effects of PbTx-2 on Pyk2 and Src activation in neocortical neurons. We found that both Pyk2 and Src were activated following PbTx-2 exposure. PbTx-2-induced Pyk2 Tyr402 phosphorylation was dependent on elevation of Ca(2+) influx through NMDA receptors. Moreover, Pyk2 Tyr402 phosphorylation was also found to require PKC activation inasmuch as RO-31-8425 and GF 109203x both attenuated the response. In contrast, PbTx-2-induced Src Tyr416 phosphorylation involved a Gq-coupled receptor inasmuch as U73122, a specific PLC inhibitor, abolished the response. This Gq-coupled receptor appears to be mGluR 5. The PKCdelta inhibitor rottlerin abolished PbTx-2-induced Src activation demonstrating that this isoform of PKC is involved in the activation of Src by PbTx-2. Considered together these data suggest that although activation of neuronal Pyk2 and Src result from PbTx-2 stimulation of VGSC, engagement of these two non-receptor tyrosine kinases involves distinct signaling pathways.  (+info)