Maitotoxin induces a calcium-dependent membrane depolarization in GH4C1 pituitary cells via activation of type L voltage-dependent calcium channels. (25/156)

Maitotoxin (MTX) is a water-soluble polyether, isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, that stimulates hormone release and Ca2+ influx. We have investigated the action by which MTX induces Ca2+ influx and stimulates prolactin (PRL) release from GH4C1 rat pituitary cells. PRL release elicited by MTX is abolished in a concentration-dependent manner by nimodipine, a dihydropyridine (DHP) antagonist of type L voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCC), indicating that MTX-enhanced PRL release occurs via activation of type L-VDCC. As an initial approach to determine whether MTX interacts directly with VDCC, we examined whether MTX affects the binding of [3H]PN 200-110, a DHP class antagonist, in intact GH4C1 cells. MTX increased the Bmax of [3H]PN 200-110 binding to intact GH4C1 cells from 4.6 +/- 0.03 to 12.5 +/- 2.2 fmol/10(6) cells, without changing the Kd. This indicates that MTX does not bind to the DHP site, but rather suggests that MTX may have an allosteric interaction with the DHP binding site. The effect of MTX on DHP binding was largely (65%) calcium-dependent. We next examined whether MTX alters the membrane potential of GH4C1 cells using the potential sensitive fluorescent dye bisoxonol. Addition of 100 ng/ml MTX to GH4C1 cells caused a membrane depolarization within 2.5 min which reached a plateau at 5 min. The MTX-induced depolarization was not prevented by substitution of impermeant choline ions for Na+. It was similarly unaffected by K+ channel blockers or by depleting the K+ chemical concentration gradient with gramicidin, a monovalent cation pore-forming agent. By contrast, low extracellular Ca2+ totally abolished the depolarization response, and nimodipine at 100 nM substantially reduced the MTX-induced membrane depolarization. These results indicate that the predominant effect of MTX on depolarization is Ca2+ influx through L-VDCC. Taken together, our results indicate that MTX-enhanced PRL release occurs exclusively via activation of type L-VDCC in GH4C1 cells. We suggest that MTX induces an initial slow calcium conductance, possibly via an allosteric interaction with a component of the VDCC complex, which, in turn, initiates a positive feedback mechanism involving calcium-dependent membrane depolarization and voltage-dependent activation of calcium channels.  (+info)

Measurement of brevetoxin levels by radioimmunoassay of blood collection cards after acute, long-term, and low-dose exposure in mice. (26/156)

We developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a sheep anti-brevetoxin antiserum to evaluate detection of brevetoxin on blood collection cards from mice treated with the brevetoxin congener PbTx-3. The RIA has high affinity for PbTx-3 [half-maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) +/- SE = 1.2 +/- 0.2 nM; n = 10] and recognizes both type 1 and type 2 brevetoxins, but not ciguatoxin. Direct comparison of the RIA with a radiolabeled [(3)H]-PbTx-3 receptor-binding assay (RBA) revealed excellent sensitivity, congener selectivity, and minimal interference from blood matrix. We first analyzed blood samples from an acute time course exposure, using a maximal nonlethal dose [180 microg/kg body weight (bw)] for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hr. Mean blood brevetoxin levels were 36 nM at 30 min and stayed above 20 nM during the 1-4 hr time points. We next analyzed blood brevetoxin levels after longer exposure (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 7 days). Mean blood brevetoxin levels were 26.0 nM at 0.5 days, decreased to 8.2 nM at 1.0 day, and maintained a significant level (p < 0.05) of 1.3 nM at day 2. We next determined the lowest measurable dose using increasing concentrations of PbTx-3 (10-300 micro g/kg bw). Analysis of the blood samples at 60 min revealed a linear relationship between administered and internal doses (r(2) = 0.993). All doses of brevetoxin administered were detectable at 1 hr, with significant levels found for the lowest administered dose of 10 micro g/kg bw--a dose that was 10-fold lower than the lowest observable effect level. This RIA provides an optimal first-tier detection of brevetoxin from blood collection cards and, used in combination with the RBA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, should provide a complete panel of methods to biomonitor brevetoxin exposure.  (+info)

Toxicogenomic effects of marine brevetoxins in liver and brain of mouse. (27/156)

Although the polyether brevetoxins (PbTx's) produced by Karenia brevis (the organism responsible for blooms of the Florida red tide) are known to exert their acute toxic effects through ion-channel mediated pathways in neural tissue, prior studies have also demonstrated that at least one form of the toxin (PbTx-6) is bound avidly by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Since AhR binding of a prototypical ligand such as dioxin is the first step in a cascade pathway producing major changes in gene expression, we reasoned that PbTx-6 might produce similar genomic-wide changes in expression. Mice were injected i.p. with sub-lethal doses of PbTx's (either 1.5 or 3 mg/g body weight of PbTx-6; or 0.15 mg/g body weight of PbTx-2, a toxin not avidly bound by the AhR), and liver and brain tissues were sampled at 8, 24 and 72 h and RNA was isolated. Changes in gene-specific RNA levels were assessed using commercially available mouse cDNA arrays (Incyte) containing >9600 array elements, including many elements from AhR-mediated genes. Histopathology of the two organs was also assessed. We observed minor histopathological effects and a total of only 29 significant (>2.0-fold) changes in gene expression, most of which occurred in the liver, and most of which could be attributable to an 'acute phase' inflammatory response. These results argue against the hypothesis that PbTx-6 acts via a classic AhR-mediated mechanism to evoke gene expression changes. However, given the avidity with which PbTx-6 binds to the AhR, these findings have important implications for how PbTx's may act in concert with other toxicants that are sensed by the AhR.  (+info)

The type B brevetoxin (PbTx-3) adversely affects development, cardiovascular function, and survival in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos. (28/156)

Brevetoxins are produced by the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. The toxins are lipophilic polyether toxins that elicit a myriad of effects depending on the route of exposure and the target organism. Brevetoxins are therefore broadly toxic to marine and estuarine animals. By mimicking the maternal route of exposure to the oocytes in finfish, we characterized the adverse effects of the type B brevetoxin brevetoxin-3 (PbTx-3) on embryonic fish development and survival. The Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), was used as the experimental model in which individual eggs were exposed via microinjection to various known concentrations of PbTx-3 dissolved in an oil vehicle. Embryos injected with doses exceeding 1.0 ng/egg displayed tachycardia, hyperkinetic twitches in the form of sustained convulsions, spinal curvature, clumping of the erythrocytes, and decreased hatching success. Furthermore, fish dosed with toxin were often unable to hatch in the classic tail-first fashion and emerged head first, which resulted in partial hatches and death. We determined that the LD(50) (dose that is lethal to 50% of the fish) for an injected dose of PbTx-3 is 4.0 ng/egg. The results of this study complement previous studies of the developmental toxicity of the type A brevetoxin brevetoxin-1 (PbTx-1), by illustrating in vivo the differing affinities of the two congeners for cardiac sodium channels. Consequently, we observed differing cardiovascular responses in the embryos, wherein embryos exposed to PbTx-3 exhibited persistent tachycardia, whereas embryos exposed to PbTx-1 displayed bradycardia, the onset of which was delayed.  (+info)

Involvement of ASK1 in Ca2+-induced p38 MAP kinase activation. (29/156)

The mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a pivotal component in cytokine- and stress-induced apoptosis. It also regulates cell differentiation and survival through p38 MAP kinase activation. Here we show that Ca2+ signalling regulates the ASK1-p38 MAP kinase cascade. Ca2+ influx evoked by membrane depolarization in primary neurons and synaptosomes induced activation of p38, which was impaired in those derived from ASK1-deficient mice. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) activated ASK1 by phosphorylation. Moreover, p38 activation induced by the expression of constitutively active CaMKII required endogenous ASK1. Thus, ASK1 is a critical intermediate of Ca2+ signalling between CaMKII and p38 MAP kinase.  (+info)

Selective disruption of the E-cadherin-catenin system by an algal toxin. (30/156)

Yessotoxins (YTXs) are algal toxins that can be accumulated in edible molluscs. YTX treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells causes the accumulation of a 100 kDa fragment of E-cadherin, which we have named ECRA(100). A relative decrease in the concentrations of intact E-cadherin did not accompany the accumulation of ECRA(100) in cytosoluble extracts of MCF-7 cells on the first day of YTX treatment, but a collapse of the E-cadherin system was detected after 2-5 days of treatment with the toxin. An analysis of the general structure of ECRA(100) revealed that it consists of an E-cadherin fragment lacking the intracellular domain of the protein. ECRA(100) was not released into culture media of YTX-treated cells. Accumulation of ECRA(100) was observed in other epithelial cells, such as human intestine Caco-2 and MDCK cells after treatment with YTX. In turn, YTX could not induce accumulation of fragments of other members of the cadherin family, such as N-cadherin in the PC12 cell line and K-cadherin in sensitive cells (MCF-7, Caco-2, MDCK). The accumulation of a 100 kDa fragment of E-cadherin devoid of its intracellular domain induced by YTX was accompanied by reduced levels of beta- and gamma-catenins bound to E-cadherin, without a concomitant decrease in the total cytosoluble pools of beta- and gamma-catenins. Taken together, the results we obtained show that YTX causes the selective disruption of the E-cadherin-catenin system in epithelial cells, and raise some concern about the potential that an algal toxin found in seafood might disrupt the tumour suppressive functions of E-cadherin.  (+info)

Maitotoxin-induced cell death cascade in bovine aortic endothelial cells: divalent cation specificity and selectivity. (31/156)

The maitotoxin (MTX)-induced cell death cascade in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), a model for Ca(2+) overload-induced toxicity, reflects three sequential changes in plasmalemmal permeability. MTX initially activates Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channels (CaNSC) and causes a massive increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). This is followed by the opening of large endogenous cytolytic/oncotic pores (COP) that allow molecules <800 Da to enter the cell. The cells then lyse not by rupture of the plasmalemma but through the activation of a "death" channel that lets large proteins (e.g., 140-160 kDa) leave the cell. These changes in permeability are accompanied by the formation of membrane blebs. In this study, we took advantage of the well-known differences in affinity of various Ca(2+)-binding proteins for Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) vs. Ba(2+) to probe their involvement in each phase of the cell death cascade. Using fluorescence techniques at the cell population level (cuvette-based) and at the single-cell level (time-lapse videomicroscopy), we found that the replacement of Ca(2+) with either Sr(2+) or Ba(2+) delayed both MTX-induced activation of COP, as indicated by the uptake of ethidium bromide, and subsequent cell lysis, as indicated by the uptake of propidium iodide or the release of cell-associated green fluorescent protein. MTX-induced responses were mimicked by ionomycin and were significantly delayed in BAPTA-loaded cells. Experiments at the single-cell level revealed that Ba(2+) not only delayed the time to cell lysis but also caused desynchronization of the lytic phase. Last, membrane blebs, which were numerous and spherical in Ca(2+)-containing solutions, were poorly defined and greatly reduced in number in the presence of Ba(2+). Taken together, these results suggest that intracellular high-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins are involved in the MTX-induced changes in plasmalemmal permeability that are responsible for cell demise.  (+info)

Brevetoxin activation of voltage-gated sodium channels regulates Ca dynamics and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in murine neocortical neurons. (32/156)

Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are involved in the generation of action potentials in neurons. Brevetoxins (PbTx) are potent allosteric enhancers of VGSC function and are associated with the periodic 'red tide' blooms. Using PbTx-2 as a probe, we have characterized the effects of activation of VGSC on Ca(2+) dynamics and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling in neocortical neurons. Neocortical neurons exhibit synchronized spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations, which are mediated by glutamatergic signaling. PbTx-2 (100 nm) increased the amplitude and reduced the frequency of basal Ca(2+) oscillations. This modulatory effect on Ca(2+) oscillations produced a sustained rise in ERK1/2 activation. At 300 nm, PbTx-2 disrupted oscillatory activity leading to a sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) and induced a biphasic, activation followed by dephosphorylation, regulation of ERK1/2. PbTx-2-induced ERK1/2 activation was Ca(2+) dependent and was mediated by Ca(2+) entry through manifold routes. PbTx-2 treatment also increased cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and increased gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These findings indicate that brevetoxins, by influencing the activation of key signaling proteins, can alter physiologic events involved in survival in neocortical neurons, as well as forms of synaptic plasticity associated with development and learning.  (+info)