Maitotoxin activates an endogenous non-selective cation channel and is an effective initiator of the activation of the heterologously expressed hTRPC-1 (transient receptor potential) non-selective cation channel in H4-IIE liver cells. (17/156)

The structures and mechanisms of activation of non-selective cation channels (NSCCs) are not well understood although NSCCs play important roles in the regulation of metabolism, ion transport, cell volume and cell shape. It has been proposed that TRP (transient receptor potential) proteins are the molecular correlates of some NSCCs. Using fura-2 and patch-clamp recording, it was shown that the maitotoxin-activated cation channels in the H4-IIE rat liver cell line admit Ca(2+), Mn(2+) and Na(+), have a high selectivity for Na(+) compared with Ca(2+), and are inhibited by Gd(3+) (half-maximal inhibition at 1 microM). Activation of the channels by maitotoxin was inhibited by increasing the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration or by inclusion of 10 mM EGTA in the patch pipette. mRNA encoding TRP proteins 1, 2 and 3 at levels comparable with those in brain was detected using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in poly(A)(+) RNA prepared from H4-IIE cells and freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes. In H4-IIE cells transiently transfected with cDNA encoding hTRPC-1, the expressed hTRPC-1 protein was chiefly located at intracellular sites and at the plasma membrane. Cells expressing hTRPC-1 exhibited a substantial enhancement of maitotoxin-initiated Ca(2+) inflow and a modest enhancement of thapsigargin-initiated Ca(2+) inflow (measured using fura-2) and no enhancement of the highly Ca(2+)-selective store-operated Ca(2+) current (measured using patch-clamp recording). In cells expressing hTRPC-1, maitotoxin activated channels which were not found in untransfected cells, have an approximately equal selectivity for Na(+) and Ca(2+), and are inhibited by Gd(3+) (half-maximal inhibition at 3 microM). It is concluded that in liver cells (i) maitotoxin initiates the activation of endogenous NSCCs with a high selectivity for Na(+) compared with Ca(2+); (ii) TRP proteins 1, 2 and 3 are expressed; (iii) maitotoxin is an effective initiator of activation of heterologously expressed hTRPC-1 channels; and (iv) the endogenous TRP-1 protein is unlikely to be the molecular counterpart of the maitotoxin-activated NSCCs nor the highly Ca(2+)-selective store-operated Ca(2+) channels.  (+info)

Characterization of the maitotoxin-activated cationic current from human skin fibroblasts. (18/156)

The maitotoxin (MTX)-induced cationic current (I(mtx)) from human skin fibroblasts was characterized using the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Under resting conditions (absence of MTX), the main current observed is produced by an outwardly rectifying K(+) channel which is inhibited by 1 mM TEA. The current reversal potential was -86 mV (n = 12). MTX (500 pM) activated a current with a linear current-voltage relationship and a reversal potential of -10 mV (n = 10). Replacing the extracellular Na(+) and K(+) with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) caused a shift of the reversal potential to a value below -100 mV, indicating that Na(+) and K(+), but not NMDG, carry I(mtx). Further ion selectivity experiments showed that Ca(2+) carries I(mtx) also. The resulting permeability sequence obtained with the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation yielded Na(+) (1) approximately equal to K(+) (1) > Ca(2+) (0.87). The I(mtx) activation time course reflected the changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) measured with the fluorescent indicators fura-2 and SBFI, respectively, suggesting that the activation of I(mtx) brings about an increment in intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+). Reducing the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration below 1.8 mM prevented the activation of I(mtx) and the increment in intracellular Na(+) induced by MTX. Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) could not replace Ca(2+), but Ba(2+) could replace Ca(2+). MTX activation of current in 10 mM Ba(2+) was approximately 50 % of that induced in the presence of 1.8 mM Ca(2+). When 5 mM of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA was included in the patch pipette, MTX either failed to activate the current or induced a small current (less than 15 % of the control), indicating that intracellular Ca(2+) is also required for the activation of I(mtx). Intracellular Ba(2+) can replace Ca(2+) as an activator of I(mtx). However, in the presence of 10 mM Ba(2+) the activation by MTX of the current was 50 % less than the activation with nM concentrations of free intracellular Ca(2+).  (+info)

Blockade of maitotoxin-induced oncotic cell death reveals zeiosis. (19/156)

BACKGROUND: Maitotoxin (MTX) initiates cell death by sequentially activating 1) Ca2+ influx via non-selective cation channels, 2) uptake of vital dyes via formation of large pores, and 3) release of lactate dehydrogenase, an indication of cell lysis. MTX also causes formation of membrane blebs, which dramatically dilate during the cytolysis phase. To determine the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in the cell death cascade, U73122, a specific inhibitor of PLC, and U73343, an inactive analog, were examined on MTX-induced responses in bovine aortic endothelial cells. RESULTS: Addition of either U73122 or U73343, prior to MTX, produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the cell death cascade (IC50 asymptotically equal to 1.9 and 0.66 microM, respectively) suggesting that the effect of these agents was independent of PLC. Addition of U73343 shortly after MTX, prevented or attenuated the effects of the toxin, but addition at later times had little or no effect. Time-lapse videomicroscopy showed that U73343 dramatically altered the blebbing profile of MTX-treated cells. Specifically, U73343 blocked bleb dilation and converted the initial blebbing event into "zeiosis", a type of membrane blebbing commonly associated with apoptosis. Cells challenged with MTX and rescued by subsequent addition of U73343, showed enhanced caspase-3 activity 48 hr after the initial insult, consistent with activation of the apoptotic program. CONCLUSIONS: Within minutes of MTX addition, endothelial cells die by oncosis. Rescue by addition of U73343 shortly after MTX showed that a small percentage of cells are destined to die by oncosis, but that a larger percentage survive; cells that survive the initial insult exhibit zeiosis and may ultimately die by apoptotic mechanisms.  (+info)

A competitive ELISA to detect brevetoxins from Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) in seawater, shellfish, and mammalian body fluid. (20/156)

We developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to analyze brevetoxins, using goat anti-brevetoxin antibodies obtained after immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-brevetoxin conjugates, in combination with a three-step signal amplification process. The procedure, which used secondary biotinylated antibodies, streptavidine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, and chromogenic enzyme substrate, was useful in reducing nonspecific background signals commonly observed with complex matrices. This competitive ELISA detected brevetoxins in seawater, shellfish extract and homogenate, and mammalian body fluid such as urine and serum without pretreatment, dilution, or purification. We investigated the application of this technique for shellfish monitoring by spiking shellfish meat with brevetoxins and by analyzing oysters from two commercial shellfish beds in Florida that were exposed to a bloom of Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve). We performed brevetoxin analysis of shellfish extracts and homogenates by ELISA and compared it with the mouse bioassay and receptor binding assay. The detection limit for brevetoxins in spiked oysters was 2.5 microg/100 g shellfish meat. This assay appears to be a useful tool for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning monitoring in shellfish and seawater, and for mammalian exposure diagnostics, and significantly reduces the time required for analyses.  (+info)

c-Src binds alpha II spectrin's Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and blocks calpain susceptibility by phosphorylating Tyr1176. (21/156)

Spectrin is a ubiquitous heterodimeric scaffolding protein that stabilizes membranes and organizes protein and lipid microdomains on both the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Phosphorylation of beta-spectrin on Ser/Thr is well recognized. Less clear is whether alpha-spectrin is phosphorylated in vivo and whether spectrin is phosphorylated on tyrosine (pTyr). We affirmatively answer both questions. In cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, alphaII spectrin undergoes in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation. Enhancement of the steady state level of pTyr-modified alphaII spectrin by vanadate, a phosphatase inhibitor, implies a dynamic balance between alphaII spectrin phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Recombinant peptides containing the Src homology 3 domain of alphaII spectrin (but not the Src homology 3 domain of alphaI spectrin) bind specifically to phosphorylated c-Src in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lysates, suggesting that this kinase is responsible for its in vivo phosphorylation. pTyr-modified alphaII spectrin is resistant to maitotoxin-induced cleavage by mu-calpain in vivo. In vitro studies of recombinant alphaII spectrin peptides representing repeats 9-12 identify two sites of pTyr modification. The first site is at Tyr(1073), a residue immediately adjacent to a region encoded by alternative exon usage (insert 1). The second site is at Tyr(1176). This residue flanks the major site of cleavage by the calcium-dependent protease calpain, and phosphorylation of Tyr(1176) by c-Src reduces the susceptibility of alphaII spectrin to cleavage by mu-calpain. Calpain cleavage of spectrin, activated by Ca(2+) and calmodulin, contributes to diverse cellular processes including synaptic remodeling, receptor-mediated endocytosis, apoptosis, and the response of the renal epithelial cell to ischemic injury. Tyrosine phosphorylation of alphaII spectrin now would appear to also mediate these events. The spectrin skeleton thus forms a point of convergence between kinase/phosphatase and Ca(2+)-mediated signaling cascades.  (+info)

Evidence that Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ channels in rat hepatocytes are required for the maintenance of hormone-induced Ca2+ oscillations. (22/156)

Store-operated Ca(2+) channels in liver cells have been shown previously to exhibit a high selectivity for Ca(2+) and to have properties indistinguishable from those of Ca(2+)-release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels in mast cells and lymphocytes [Rychkov, Brereton, Harland and Barritt (2001) Hepatology 33, 938-947]. The role of CRAC channels in the maintenance of hormone-induced oscillations in the cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) in isolated rat hepatocytes was investigated using several inhibitors of CRAC channels. 2-Aminoethyl diphenylborate (2-APB; 75 microM), Gd(3+) (1 microM) and 1-[beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride (SK&F 96365; 50 microM) each inhibited vasopressin- and adrenaline (epinephrine)-induced Ca(2+) oscillations (measured using fura-2). The characteristics of this inhibition were similar to those of inhibition caused by decreasing the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration to zero by addition of EGTA. The effect of 2-APB was reversible. In contrast, LOE-908 [( R, S )-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isochinolin-1-yl)-2-phenyl- N, N -di[2-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]acetamide mesylate] (30 microM), used commonly to block Ca(2+) inflow through intracellular-messenger-activated, non-selective cation channels, did not inhibit the Ca(2+) oscillations. In the absence of added extracellular Ca(2+), 2-APB, Gd(3+) and SK&F 96365 did not alter the kinetics of the increase in [Ca(2+)](cyt) induced by a concentration of adrenaline or vasopressin that induces continuous Ca(2+) oscillations at the physiological extracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Ca(2+) inflow through non-selective cation channels activated by maitotoxin could not restore Ca(2+) oscillations in cells treated with 2-APB to block Ca(2+) inflow through CRAC channels. Evidence for the specificity of the pharmacological agents for inhibition of CRAC channels under the conditions of the present experiments with hepatocytes is discussed. It is concluded that Ca(2+) inflow through CRAC channels is required for the maintenance of hormone-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in isolated hepatocytes.  (+info)

Blockade of maitotoxin-induced endothelial cell lysis by glycine and L-alanine. (23/156)

The maitotoxin (MTX)-induced cell death cascade in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) is a model for oncotic/necrotic cell death. The cascade is initiated by an increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), which is followed by the biphasic uptake of vital dyes. The initial phase of dye entry reflects activation of large pores and correlates with surface membrane bleb formation; the second phase reflects cell lysis. In the present study, the effect of the cytoprotective amino acid glycine was examined. Glycine had no effect on MTX-induced change in [Ca(2+)](i) or on the first phase of vital dye uptake but produced a concentration-dependent (EC(50) approximately 1 mM) inhibition of the second phase of dye uptake. No cytoprotective effect was observed with l-valine, l-proline, or d-alanine, whereas l-alanine was equieffective to glycine. Furthermore, glycine had no effect on MTX-induced bleb formation. To test the hypothesis that glycine specifically blocks formation of a lytic "pore," the loss of fluorescence from BAECs transiently expressing GFP and concatemers of GFP ranging in size from 27 to 162 kDa was examined using time-lapse videomicroscopy. MTX-induced loss of GFP was rapid, correlated with the second phase of dye uptake, and was relatively independent of molecular size. The MTX-induced loss of GFP from BAECs was completely blocked by glycine. The data suggest that the second "lytic" phase of MTX-induced endothelial cell death reflects formation of a novel permeability pathway that allows macromolecules such as GFP or LDH to escape, yet can be prevented by the cytoprotective agents glycine and l-alanine.  (+info)

Allosteric interactions among pyrethroid, brevetoxin, and scorpion toxin receptors on insect sodium channels raise an alternative approach for insect control. (24/156)

Intensive pyrethroid use in insect control has led to resistance buildup among various pests. One alternative to battle this problem envisions the combined use of synergistically acting insecticidal compounds. Pyrethroids, scorpion alpha- and beta-toxins, and brevetoxins bind to distinct receptor sites on voltage-gated sodium channels (NaChs) and modify their function. The binding affinity of scorpion alpha-toxins to locust, but not rat-brain NaChs, is allosterically increased by pyrethroids and by brevetoxin-1. Brevetoxin-1 also increases the binding of an excitatory beta-toxin to insect NaChs. These results reveal differences between insect and mammalian NaChs and may be exploited in new strategies of insect control.  (+info)