DNA methylation patterns are generated during development by a sequence of methylation and demethylation events. We have recently demonstrated that mammals bear a bona fide demethylase enzyme that removes methyl groups from methylated cytosines. A general genome wide demethylation occurs early in development and in differentiating cell lines. This manuscript tests the hypothesis that the demethylase enzyme is a processive enzyme. Using bisulfite mapping, this report demonstrates that demethylase is a processive enzyme and that the rate-limiting step in demethylation is the initiation of demethylation. Initiation of demethylation is determined by the properties of the sequence. Once initiated, demethylation progresses processively. We suggest that these data provide a molecular explanation for global hypomethylation. (+info)
DNA methylation is a reversible biological signal.
The pattern of DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating different genome functions. To test the hypothesis that DNA methylation is a reversible biochemical process, we purified a DNA demethylase from human cells that catalyzes the cleavage of a methyl residue from 5-methyl cytosine and its release as methanol. We show that similar to DNA methyltransferase, DNA demethylase shows CpG dinucleotide specificity, can demethylate mdCpdG sites in different sequence contexts, and demethylates both fully methylated and hemimethylated DNA. Thus, contrary to the commonly accepted model, DNA methylation is a reversible signal, similar to other physiological biochemical modifications. (+info)
Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing vanA and vanB, genes required for conversion of either ferulate or vanillate to protocatechuate in Acinetobacter.
VanA and VanB form an oxygenative demethylase that converts vanillate to protocatechuate in microorganisms. Ferulate, an abundant phytochemical, had been shown to be metabolized through a vanillate intermediate in several Pseudomonas isolates, and biochemical evidence had indicated that vanillate also is an intermediate in ferulate catabolism by Acinetobacter. Genetic evidence supporting this conclusion was obtained by characterization of mutant Acinetobacter strains blocked in catabolism of both ferulate and vanillate. Cloned Acinetobacter vanA and vanB were shown to be members of a chromosomal segment remote from a supraoperonic cluster containing other genes required for completion of the catabolism of ferulate and its structural analogs, caffeate and coumarate, through protocatechuate. The nucleotide sequence of DNA containing vanA and vanB demonstrated the presence of genes that, on the basis of nucleotide sequence similarity, appeared to be associated with transport of aromatic compounds, metabolism of such compounds, or iron scavenging. Spontaneous deletion of 100 kb of DNA containing this segment does not impede the growth of cells with simple carbon sources other than vanillate or ferulate. Additional spontaneous mutations blocking vanA and vanB expression were shown to be mediated by IS1236, including insertion of the newly discovered composite transposon Tn5613. On the whole, vanA and vanB appear to be located within a nonessential genetic region that exhibits considerable genetic malleability in Acinetobacter. The overall organization of genes neighboring Acinetobacter vanA and vanB, including a putative transcriptional regulatory gene that is convergently transcribed and overlaps vanB, is conserved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but has undergone radical rearrangement in other Pseudomonas species. (+info)
Substrate range and genetic analysis of Acinetobacter vanillate demethylase.
An Acinetobacter sp. genetic screen was used to probe structure-function relationships in vanillate demethylase, a two-component monooxygenase. Mutants with null, leaky, and heat-sensitive phenotypes were isolated. Missense mutations tended to be clustered in specific regions, most of which make known contributions to catalytic activity. The vanillate analogs m-anisate, m-toluate, and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzoate are substrates of the enzyme and weakly inhibit the metabolism of vanillate by wild-type Acinetobacter bacteria. PCR mutagenesis of vanAB, followed by selection for strains unable to metabolize vanillate, yielded mutant organisms in which vanillate metabolism is more strongly inhibited by the vanillate analogs. Thus, the procedure opens for investigation amino acid residues that may contribute to the binding of either vanillate or its chemical analogs to wild-type and mutant vanillate demethylases. Selection of phenotypic revertants following PCR mutagenesis gave an indication of the extent to which amino acid substitutions can be tolerated at specified positions. In some cases, only true reversion to the original amino acid was observed. In other examples, a range of amino acid substitutions was tolerated. In one instance, phenotypic reversion failed to produce a protein with the original wild-type sequence. In this example, constraints favoring certain nucleotide substitutions appear to be imposed at the DNA level. (+info)
Coexistence of two different O demethylation systems in lignin metabolism by Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6: cloning and sequencing of the lignin biphenyl-specific O-demethylase (LigX) gene.
Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 can grow on several dimeric model compounds of lignin as a carbon and energy source. It has O demethylation systems on three kinds of substrates: 5, 5'-dehydrodivanillic acid (DDVA), syringate, and vanillate. We previously reported the cloning of a gene involved in the tetrahydrofolate-dependent O demethylation of syringate and vanillate. In the study reported here, we cloned the gene responsible for DDVA O demethylation. Using nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis, a mutant strain, NT-1, which could not degrade DDVA but could degrade syringate and vanillate, was isolated and was used to clone the gene responsible for the O demethylation of DDVA by complementation. Sequencing analysis showed an open reading frame (designated ligX) of 1,266 bp in this fragment. The deduced amino acid sequence of LigX had similarity to class I type oxygenases. LigX was involved in O demethylation activity on DDVA but not on vanillate and syringate. DDVA O demethylation activity in S. paucimobilis SYK-6 cell extracts was inhibited by addition of the LigX polyclonal antiserum. Thus, LigX is an essential enzyme for DDVA O demethylation in SYK-6. S. paucimobilis SYK-6 has two O demethylation systems: one is an oxygenative demethylase system, and the other is a tetrahydrofolate-dependent methyltransferase system. (+info)
Bioconversion of ferulic acid into vanillic acid by means of a vanillate-negative mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BF13.
From a ferulic-acid-degrading Pseudomonas fluorescens strain (BF13), we have isolated a transposon mutant, which retained the ability to bioconvert ferulic acid into vanillic acid but lost the ability to further degrade the latter acid. The mutant, BF13-97, was very stable, and therefore it was suitable to be used as a biocatalyst for the preparative synthesis of vanillic acid from ferulic acid. By use of resting cells we determined the effect on the bioconversion rate of several parameters, such as the addition of nutritional factors, the concentration of the biomass, and the carbon source on which the biomass was grown. The optimal yield of vanillic acid was obtained with cells pregrown on M9 medium containing p-coumaric acid (0.1% [wt/vol]) as a sole carbon source and yeast extract (0.001% [wt/vol]) as a source of nutritional factors. Under these conditions, 1 mg (wet weight) of biomass produced 0.23 mg of vanillic acid per h. The genomic region of BF13-97 flanking the transposon's site of insertion was cloned and sequenced revealing two open reading frames of 1,062 (vanA) and 954 (vanB) bp, respectively. The van genes are organized in a cluster and encode the subunits of the vanillate-O-demethylase, which catalyzes the first step of the vanillate catabolism. Amino acid sequences deduced from vanA and vanB genes were shown to have high identity with known VanAs and VanBs from Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. Highly conserved regions known to exist in class IA oxygenases were also found in the vanillate-O-demethylase components from P. fluorescens BF13. The terminal oxygenase VanA is characterized by a conserved Rieske-type [2Fe-2S](R) ligand center. The reductase VanB contains a plant-type ferredoxin [2Fe-2S](Fd), flavin mononucleotide, and NAD-ribose binding domains which are located in its C-terminal and N-terminal halves, respectively. Transfer of wild-type vanAB genes to BF13-97 complemented this mutant, which recovered its ability to grow on either vanillic or ferulic acid. (+info)
Frequencies of CYP2D6 mutant alleles in a normal Japanese population and metabolic activity of dextromethorphan O-demethylation in different CYP2D6 genotypes.
AIMS: To determine the frequencies of 11 CYP2D6 mutant alleles (CYP2D6*2, *3, *4, *5, *8, *10, *11, *12, *14, *17 and *18), and their relation to the metabolic capacity of CYP2D6 in Japanese subjects. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-two unrelated healthy Japanese subjects were genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction amplification method and 35 subjects were phenotyped with dextromethorphan. RESULTS: The frequencies of CYP2D6*2,*5, *10 and *14 were 12.9, 6.2, 38.6 and 2.2% in our Japanese subjects, respectively. CYP2D6*3, *4, *8, *11, *12, *17 and *18 were not detected. The mean log metabolic ratio of dextromethorphan in subjects with genotypes predicting intermediate metabolizers was significantly greater than that of heterozygotes for functional and defective alleles. CONCLUSIONS: CYP2D6*5 and CYP2D6*14 are the major defective alleles found in Japanese subjects. In addition, CYP2D6*10 may play a more important role than previously thought for the treatment of Japanese patients with drugs metabolized by CYP2D6. (+info)
Substrate and solvent isotope effects on the fate of the active oxygen species in substrate-modulated reactions of putidamonooxin.
Using 4-methoxybenzoate monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida, the substrate deuterium isotope effect on product formation and the solvent isotope effect on the stoichiometry of oxygen uptake, NADH oxidation, product and/or H2O2 (D2O2) formation for tight couplers, partial uncouplers, and uncouplers as substrates were measured. These studies revealed for the true, intrinsic substrate deuterium isotope effect on the oxygenation reaction a k1H/k2H ratio of < 2.0, derived from the inter- and intramolecular substrate isotope effects. This value favours a concerted oxygenation mechanism of the substrate. Deuterium substitution in a tightly coupling substrate initiated a partial uncoupling of oxygen reduction and substrate oxygenation, with release of H2O2 corresponding to 20% of the overall oxygen uptake. This H2O2 (D2O2) formation (oxidase reaction) almost completely disappeared when the oxygenase function was increased by deuterium substitution in the solvent. The electron transfer from NADH to oxygen, however, was not affected by deuterium substitution in the substrate and/or the solvent. With 4-trifluoromethylbenzoate as uncoupling substrate and D2O as solvent, a reduction (peroxidase reaction) of the active oxygen complex was initiated in consequence of its extended lifetime. These additional two electron-transfer reactions to the active oxygen complex were accompanied by a decrease of both NADH oxidation and oxygen uptake rates. These findings lead to the following conclusions: (a) under tightly coupling conditions the rate-limiting step must be the formation time and lifetime of an active transient intermediate within the ternary complex iron/peroxo/substrate, rather than an oxygenative attack on a suitable C-H bond or electron transfer from NADH to oxygen. Water is released after the monooxygenation reaction; (b) under uncoupling conditions there is competition in the detoxification of the active oxygen complex between its protonation (deuteronation), with formation of H2O2 (D2O2) and its further reduction to water. The additional two electron-transfer reactions onto the active oxygen complex then become rate limiting for the oxygen uptake rate. (+info)