The repressed nuclear receptor CAR responds to phenobarbital in activating the human CYP2B6 gene.
The endogenous CYP2B6 gene becomes phenobarbital (PB) inducible in androstenol-treated HepG2 cells either transiently or stably transfected with a nuclear receptor CAR expression vector. The PB induction mediated by CAR is regulated by a conserved 51-base pair element called PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) that has now been located between -1733 and -1683 bp in the gene's 5'-flanking region. An in vitro translated CAR acting as a retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer binds directly to the two nuclear receptor sites NR1 and NR2 within PBREM. In a stably transfected HepG2 cell line, both PBREM and NR1 are activated by PB and PB-type compounds such as chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorpromazine. In addition to PBREM, CAR also transactivates the steroid/rifampicin-response element of the human CYP3A4 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, activation of the repressed nuclear receptor CAR appears to be a versatile mediator that regulates PB induction of the CYP2B and other genes. (+info)
The aromatase inactivator 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) inhibits tamoxifen metabolism by rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A: potential for drug-drug interaction of tamoxifen and 4-OH-A in combined anti-breast cancer therapy.
Tamoxifen (tam), an anti-breast cancer agent, is metabolized into tam-N-oxide by the hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase and into N-desmethyl- and 4-hydroxy-tam by cytochrome P-450s (CYPs). Additionally, tam is metabolically activated by hepatic CYP3A, forming a reactive intermediate that binds covalently to proteins. Tam and 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) are currently used to treat breast cancer, and it has been contemplated that 4-OH-A be given concurrently with tam to contravene potential tumor resistance to tam. Because alterations in tam metabolism may influence its therapeutic efficacy, the effect of 4-OH-A on tam metabolism was examined. Incubation of tam with liver microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rats, in the presence of 4-OH-A (10-100 microM), resulted in marked inhibition of tam-N-demethylation and tam covalent binding and in decreased tam-N-oxide accumulation; however, there was no inhibition of the formation of 4-hydroxy-tam and of 3,4-dihydroxytamoxifen. These findings indicate that 4-OH-A inhibits CYP3A, but not P-450(s) that catalyze tam 4-hydroxylation. The diminished tam-N-oxide accumulation could be due to decreased N-oxide formation and/or due to increased N-oxide reduction. Incubation of tam-N-oxide with liver microsomes containing heat-inactivated flavin-containing monooxygenase demonstrated that 4-OH-A increases the accumulation of tam, possibly by diminishing its P-450-mediated metabolism. Kinetic studies indicate that 4-OH-A is a competitive inhibitor of CYP3A, but not a time-dependent inactivator. Consequently, the concurrent treatment of tam and 4-OH-A may result in increased tam half-life and thus could potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of tam and diminish the potential side effects of tam by inhibiting its covalent binding to proteins and possibly to DNA. (+info)
Comparison of urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio between neonates and their mothers.
AIMS: To assess CYP3A enzyme activity in human neonates by measuring the urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6beta-OHF/C) ratio. METHODS: Fifty-six mature male neonates with normal delivery, seventeen of their mothers and twenty-four healthy non-pregnant young women participated in this study. Urinary 6beta-OHF/C ratio was determined on the day of birth in neonates and their mothers. In addition, changes in the ratio after birth were determined in neonates. RESULTS: On the day of birth, the urinary 6beta-OHF/C ratio of neonates was significantly higher than that of their mothers (20.5 vs 6.9). In contrast, no significant difference was observed in the mean ratio of urinary 6beta-OHF/C between women with and without pregnancy (6.9 vs 9.0). The urinary 6beta-OHF/C ratio after birth was decreased day by day in neonates. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the high urinary 6beta-OHF/C ratio in mature neonates on the day of birth is independent of the activity of CYP3A enzyme in their mothers. (+info)
Transport of rhodamine 123, a P-glycoprotein substrate, across rat intestine and Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence of cytochrome P-450 3A-related compounds.
Effects of cytochrome P-450 3A- and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-related compounds, erythromycin, midazolam, ketoconazole, verapamil, and quinidine, on transport of rhodamine 123 (Rho-123), a P-gp substrate, were studied in rat intestine and in Caco-2 cells. Ileum was mainly used in rat studies because this segment showed greater P-gp-mediated Rho-123 transport. In an in vitro everted rat ileum, all the compounds examined significantly inhibited the transport of Rho-123 from serosal to mucosal surfaces across the intestine, with different inhibitory potencies among these compounds. In an in vivo rat study, the exsorption of Rho-123 from blood to the intestinal lumen, which was evaluated as exsorption clearance of Rho-123 under a steady-state plasma concentration of Rho-123, was also inhibited when these compounds were added to the intestinal lumen. Similarly, transepithelial transport of Rho-123 from the basolateral to apical side across Caco-2 cell monolayers was inhibited by these compounds. A linear relationship was observed in their inhibitory potencies on Rho-123 transport between in vitro and in vivo studies using rat ileum and between studies with rat ileum and Caco-2 cells. P-gp-mediated transport across the intestine was found to be inhibited not only by P-gp-related but also by all the cytochrome P-450 3A-related compounds examined. Within experimental error, the relative inhibitory potencies were the same between the studies with rat ileum (in vivo, in vitro) and those with Caco-2 cells. Thus, it is suggested that the function of P-gp and its sensitivity to these drugs may be similar in rat intestine and Caco-2 cells. (+info)
Monospecific antipeptide antibody to cytochrome P-450 2B6.
To study cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2B6 contribution to methoxychlor metabolism within human liver microsomes and to initiate an investigation of CYP2B6 protein expression, we developed a polyclonal antibody targeted to a 20-residue peptide within that protein. The antibody was found to be highly sensitive and monospecific for CYP2B6 on immunoblots. Although many immunological studies have described the absence or low expression of CYP2B6 in human livers, in the present investigation, we have found this not to be the case. We immunoquantified CYP2B6 apoprotein expression in a panel of 28 livers and found concentrations ranging from 2 to 82 pmol/mg protein, with a mean value of 25 pmol/mg protein. Five livers ( approximately 18%) displayed relatively high levels of CYP2B6 (>40 pmol/mg protein). There were no sex-related differences, although the highest level was observed in a 1-week postpartum donor given several medications. A marked diminution in variability was found in individuals aged 56 or older (n = 12), but there were no age-related trends in mean CYP2B6 content. We suggest that CYP2B6 represents a significant portion of total CYP in human liver. The exquisite sensitivity of this antibody (fmol quantities are detected easily on immunoblots) may explain our detection of CYP2B6 in 100% of livers versus its detection in a limited number of livers by certain other investigators. The antibody also was found to immunoinhibit CYP2B6-catalyzed N-demethylation of (S)-mephenytoin in human liver microsomes by 68 to 79%. The utility of this antibody for determining human liver microsomal CYP2B6 contribution to the ortho-hydroxylation of methoxychlor was demonstrated. (+info)
Role of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in the in vitro N-dechloroethylation of (R)- and (S)-ifosfamide in human liver microsomes.
The central nervous system toxicity of ifosfamide (IFF), a chiral antineoplastic agent, is thought to be dependent on its N-dechloroethylation by hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes. The purpose of this study was to identify the human CYPs responsible for IFF-N-dechloroethylation and their corresponding regio- and enantioselectivities. IFF exists in two enantiomeric forms, (R) - and (S)-IFF, which can be dechloroethylated at either the N2 or N3 positions, producing the corresponding (R,S)-2-dechloroethyl-IFF [(R, S)-2-DCE-IFF] and (R,S)-3-dechloroethyl-IFF [(R,S)-3-DCE-IFF]. The results of the present study suggest that the production of (R)-2-DCE-IFF and (S)-3-DCE-IFF from (R)-IFF is catalyzed by different CYPs as is the production of (S)-2-DCE-IFF and (R)-3-DCE-IFF from (S)-IFF. In vitro studies with a bank of human liver microsomes revealed that the sample-to-sample variation in the production of (S)-3-DCE-IFF from (R)-IFF and (S)-2-DCE-IFF from (S)-IFF was highly correlated with the levels of (S)-mephenytoin N-demethylation (CYP2B6), whereas (R)-2-DCE-IFF production from (R)-IFF and (R)-3-DCE-IFF production from (S)-IFF were both correlated with the activity of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A4/5). Experiments with cDNA-expressed P-450 and antibody and chemical inhibition studies supported the conclusion that the formation of (S)-3-DCE-IFF and (S)-2-DCE-IFF is catalyzed primarily by CYP2B6, whereas (R)-2-DCE-IFF and (R)-3-DCE-IFF are primarily the result of CYP3A4/5 activity. (+info)
Defect in dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, a new inborn error of metabolism: NMR spectroscopy study.
BACKGROUND: A38-year-old man presented with a history of fish odor (since age 5) and unusual muscle fatigue with increased serum creatine kinase. Our aim was to identify the metabolic error in this new condition. METHODS: We used 1H NMR spectroscopy to study serum and urine from the patient. RESULTS: The concentration of N, N-dimethylglycine (DMG) was increased approximately 100-fold in the serum and approximately 20-fold in the urine. The presence of DMG as a storage product was confirmed by use of 13C NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The high concentration of DMG was caused by a deficiency of the enzyme dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH). A homozygous missense mutation was found in the DMGDH gene of the patient. CONCLUSIONS: DMGDH deficiency must be added to the differential diagnosis of patients complaining of a fish odor. This deficiency is the first inborn error of metabolism discovered by use of in vitro 1H NMR spectroscopy of body fluids. (+info)
Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in human renal cell cancer.
Renal cell cancer is the main malignant tumour of the kidney and has an increasing incidence. This type of tumour has a poor prognosis and shows intrinsic resistance to several anti-cancer drugs. The CYP3A P450 family, which consists of three closely related forms, is involved in the oxidative activation and deactivation of a variety of carcinogens and several anti-cancer drugs. In this study the presence and cellular localization of CYP3A has been investigated using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in renal cell cancer and corresponding normal kidney. CYP3A was consistently expressed in both renal call cancer and in normal kidney. In renal cell cancer, CYP3A was localized to tumour cells and in normal kidney the predominant cellular localization of CYP3A was to proximal tubular epithelial cells. RT-PCR showed that both CYP3A5 mRNA and CYP3A7 mRNA were consistently present in both tumour and normal samples, while CYP3A4 mRNA was present in 65% of tumours and 90% of normal samples. This study indicates that individual members of the CYP3A family are expressed in renal cell cancer. The presence of CYP3A in renal cell cancer might be important in the metabolic potentiation as well as the detoxification of chemotherapeutic agents used to renal cancer. (+info)