The in-vitro activity of linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone, was investigated in comparison with those of amoxycillin, cefuroxime, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trovafloxacin and vancomycin against 420 recent Gram-positive and anaerobic clinical isolates. Linezolid was equally active (MIC90 1 mg/L) against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It demonstrated uniform activity against streptococci and enterococci and no cross-resistance with other agents. The time-kill kinetic data demonstrated that the in-vitro activity of linezolid was predominantly bacteriostatic; slow bactericidal activity was only observed at the higher concentration with streptococci. An increase in inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs (MIC90 within one dilution step) of linezolid and an increase in inoculum from 10(5) to 10(7) cfu/mL had no notable effect on the in-vitro bactericidal activity. A tentative linezolid breakpoint of 2 mg/L was chosen after analysis of distribution of susceptibilities. (+info)
(2/1402) Novel structural templates for estrogen-receptor ligands and prospects for combinatorial synthesis of estrogens.
BACKGROUND: The development of estrogen pharmaceutical agents with appropriate tissue-selectivity profiles has not yet benefited substantially from the application of combinatorial synthetic approaches to the preparation of structural classes that are known to be ligands for the estrogen receptor (ER). We have developed an estrogen pharmacophore that consists of a simple heterocyclic core scaffold, amenable to construction by combinatorial methods, onto which are appended 3-4 peripheral substituents that embody substructural motifs commonly found in nonsteroidal estrogens. The issue addressed here is whether these heterocyclic core structures can be used to prepare ligands with good affinity for the ER. RESULTS: We prepared representative members of various azole core structures. Although members of the imidazole, thiazole or isoxazole classes generally have weak binding for the ER, several members of the pyrazole class show good binding affinity. The high-affinity pyrazoles bear close conformational relationship to the nonsteroidal ligand raloxifene, and they can be fitted into the ligand-binding pocket of the ER-raloxifene X-ray structure. CONCLUSIONS: Compounds such as these pyrazoles, which are novel ER ligands, are well suited for combinatorial synthesis using solid-phase methods. (+info)
(3/1402) Protein phosphatase 2A interacts with the 70-kDa S6 kinase and is activated by inhibition of FKBP12-rapamycinassociated protein.
The FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP; also called RAFT1/mTOR) regulates translation initiation and entry into the cell cycle. Depriving cells of amino acids or treating them with the small molecule rapamycin inhibits FRAP and results in rapid dephosphorylation and inactivation of the translational regulators 4E-BP1(eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1) and p70(s6k) (the 70-kDa S6 kinase). Data published recently have led to the view that FRAP acts as a traditional mitogen-activated kinase, directly phosphorylating 4E-BP1 and p70(s6k) in response to mitogenic stimuli. We present evidence that FRAP controls 4E-BP1 and p70(s6k) phosphorylation indirectly by restraining a phosphatase. A calyculin A-sensitive phosphatase is required for the rapamycin- or amino acid deprivation-induced dephosphorylation of p70(s6k), and treatment of Jurkat I cells with rapamycin increases the activity of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) toward 4E-BP1. PP2A is shown to associate with p70(s6k) but not with a mutated p70(s6k) that is resistant to rapamycin- and amino acid deprivation-mediated dephosphorylation. FRAP also is shown to phosphorylate PP2A in vitro, consistent with a model in which phosphorylation of PP2A by FRAP prevents the dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and p70(s6k), whereas amino acid deprivation or rapamycin treatment inhibits FRAP's ability to restrain the phosphatase. (+info)
(4/1402) The Rho-related protein Rnd1 inhibits Ca2+ sensitization of rat smooth muscle.
1. The small GTP-binding Rho proteins are involved in the agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle. The action and the expression of Rnd1, a new member of the Rho protein family constitutively bound to GTP, has been studied in rat smooth muscle. 2. Recombinant prenylated Rnd1 (0.01-0.1 mg ml-1) dose dependently inhibited carbachol- and GTPgammaS-induced Ca2+ sensitization in beta-escin-permeabilized ileal smooth muscle strips but had no effect on the tension at submaximal [Ca2+] (pCa 6.3). Rnd1 inhibited GTPgammaS-induced tension without shifting the dose-response curves to GTPgammaS. 3. pCa-tension relationships were not modified by Rnd1 and the rise in tension induced through the inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase by calyculin A was not affected by Rnd1. 4. The Ca2+ sensitization induced by recombinant RhoA was completely abolished when RhoA and Rnd1 were applied together. 5. Rnd1 was expressed at a low level in membrane fractions prepared from intestinal or arterial smooth muscles. The expression of Rnd1 was strongly increased in ileal and aortic smooth muscle from rats treated with progesterone or oestrogen. Progesterone-treated ileal muscle strips showed a decrease in agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization. 6. The present study shows that (i) Rnd1 inhibits agonist- and GTPgammaS-induced Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle by specifically interfering with a RhoA-dependent mechanism and (ii) an increase in Rnd1 expression may account, at least in part, for the steroid-induced decrease in agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization. (+info)
(5/1402) Cardiovascular effects of rilmenidine, moxonidine and clonidine in conscious wild-type and D79N alpha2A-adrenoceptor transgenic mice.
1. We investigated the cardiovascular effects of rilmenidine, moxonidine and clonidine in conscious wild-type and D79N alpha2A-adrenoceptor mice. The in vitro pharmacology of these agonists was determined at recombinant (human) alpha2-adrenoceptors and at endogenous (dog) alpha2A-adrenoceptors. 2. In wild-type mice, rilmenidine, moxonidine (100, 300 and 1000 microg kg(-1), i.v.) and clonidine (30, 100 and 300 microg kg(-1), i.v.) dose-dependently decreased blood pressure and heart rate. 3. In D79N alpha2A-adrenoceptor mice, responses to rilmenidine and moxonidine did not differ from vehicle control. Clonidine-induced hypotension was absent, but dose-dependent hypertension and bradycardia were observed. 4. In wild-type mice, responses to moxonidine (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.) were antagonized by the non-selective, non-imidazoline alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, RS-79948-197 (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 5. Affinity estimates (pKi) at human alpha2A-, alpha2B- and alpha2C-adrenoceptors, respectively, were: rilmenidine (5.80, 5.76 and 5.33), moxonidine (5.37, <5 and <5) and clonidine (7.21, 7.16 and 6.87). In a [35S]-GTPgammaS incorporation assay, moxonidine and clonidine were alpha2A-adrenoceptor agonists (pEC50/intrinsic activity relative to noradrenaline): moxonidine (5.74/0.85) and clonidine (7.57/0.32). 6. In dog saphenous vein, concentration-dependent contractions were observed (pEC50/intrinsic activity relative to noradrenaline): rilmenidine (5.83/0.70), moxonidine (6.48/0.98) and clonidine (7.22/0.83). Agonist-independent affinities were obtained with RS-79948-197. 7. Thus, expression of alpha2A-adrenoceptors is a prerequisite for the cardiovascular effects of moxonidine and rilmenidine in conscious mice. There was no evidence of I1-imidazoline receptor-mediated effects. The ability of these compounds to act as alpha2A-adrenoceptor agonists in vitro supports this conclusion. (+info)
(6/1402) Activities of several novel oxazolidinones against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine model.
The activities of linezolid, eperezolid, and PNU-100480 were evaluated in a murine model of tuberculosis. Approximately 10(7) viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATCC 35801 organisms were given intravenously to 4-week-old outbred CD-1 mice. In the first study, treatment was started 1 day postinfection and was given by gavage for 4 weeks. Viable cell counts were determined from homogenates of spleens and lungs. PNU-100480 was as active as isoniazid. Linezolid was somewhat less active than PNU-100480 and isoniazid. Eperezolid had little activity in this model. In the next two studies, treatment was started 1 week postinfection. A dose-response study was performed with PNU-100480 and linezolid (both at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg of body weight). PNU-100480 was more active than linezolid, and its efficacy increased with an escalation of the dose. Subsequently, the activity of PNU-100480 alone and in combination with rifampin or isoniazid was evaluated and was compared to that of isoniazid-rifampin. The activity of PNU-100480 was similar to that of isoniazid and/or rifampin in the various combinations tested. Further evaluation of these oxazolidinones in the murine test system would be useful prior to the development of clinical studies with humans. (+info)
(7/1402) TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha induce heme oxygenase-1 via protein kinase C, Ca2+, and phospholipase A2 in endothelial cells.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme important in protection against oxidant stress, is induced in human vascular endothelial cells by the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha). However, the signaling mediators that regulate the induction are not known. This study examined the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), calcium, and oxidants in cytokine induction of HO-1. Acute exposure to the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated HO-1 mRNA. However, prolonged exposure, which downregulates most PKC isoforms, blocked induction of HO-1 mRNA by IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha. Additionally, the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin enhanced cytokine induction of HO-1. Mepacrine, a PLA2 inhibitor, prevented HO-1 induction by cytokine, suggesting a role for arachidonate, the product of PLA2 hydrolysis of phospholipids, in HO-1 expression. The intracellular calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) blocked cytokine induction of HO-1. Paradoxically, the calcium ionophore A-23187 prevented HO-1 induction by cytokine but not by PMA. Finally, the oxidant scavenger N-acetylcysteine inhibited HO-1 induction by cytokines. These results demonstrate that TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha induction of HO-1 requires PKC-mediated phosphorylation and PLA2 activation as well as oxidant generation. (+info)
(8/1402) Regulation of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport in turkey red cells: the role of oxygen tension and protein phosphorylation.
1. Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport (NKCC) was studied in turkey red cells using Na+ dependence or bumetanide sensitivity of 86Rb+ influx to monitor activity of the transporter. 2. Deoxygenation was the major physiological stimulus for NKCC activity: oxygen tensions (PO2) over the physiological range modulated the transporter, with a PO2 for half-maximal activation of about 41 mmHg (n = 3). In air, activity of NKCC was also stimulated by shrinkage and isoproteronol (isoprenaline, 5 microgr;M). By contrast, in deoxygenated cells, although the transporter activity was markedly elevated, it was no longer sensitive to volume or beta-adrenergic stimulation. 3. Calyculin A, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, stimulated cotransport with a lag of about 5 min. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) inhibited cotransport and also blocked the stimulatory effect of calyculin A if administered before calyculin A. Stimulation by calyculin A and deoxygenation were not additive. Staurosporine (2 microM) inhibited deoxygenated-stimulated K+ influxes, but not those stimulated by calyculin A. NEM added during calyculin A stimulation, i.e. during the 5 min lag, caused transport activity to be clamped at levels intermediate between maximal (calyculin A alone) and control. Cells treated with calyculin A alone or with calyculin A followed by NEM were no longer sensitive to volume, isoproteronol or PO2. 4. The results have characterized the interaction between deoxygenation and other stimuli of NKCC activity. They have also shown that it is possible to manipulate the transporter in a reciprocal way to that shown previously for K+-Cl- cotransport. (+info)