A cytosine analog that confers enhanced potency to antisense oligonucleotides.
Antisense technology is based on the ability to design potent, sequence-specific inhibitors. The G-clamp heterocycle modification, a cytosine analog that clamps on to guanine by forming an additional hydrogen bond, was rationally designed to enhance oligonucleotide/RNA hybrid affinity. A single, context-dependent substitution of a G-clamp heterocycle into a 15-mer phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (S-ON) targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27(kip1), enhanced antisense activity as compared with a previously optimized C5-propynyl-modified p27(kip1) S-ON and functionally replaced 11 C5-propynyl modifications. Dose-dependent, sequence-specific antisense inhibition was observed at nanomolar concentrations of the G-clamp S-ONs. A single nucleotide mismatch between the G-clamp S-ON and the p27(kip1) mRNA reduced the potency of the antisense ON by five-fold. A 2-base-mismatch S-ON eliminated antisense activity, confirming the sequence specificity of G-clamp-modified S-ONs. The G-clamp-substituted p27(kip1) S-ON activated RNase H-mediated cleavage and demonstrated increased in vitro binding affinity for its RNA target compared with conventional 15-mer S-ONs. Furthermore, incorporation of a single G-clamp modification into a previously optimized 20-mer phosphorothioate antisense S-ON targeting c-raf increased the potency of the S-ON 25-fold. The G-clamp heterocycle is a potent, mismatch-sensitive, automated synthesizer-compatible antisense S-ON modification that will have important applications in the elucidation of gene function, the validation of gene targets, and the development of more potent antisense-based pharmaceuticals. (+info)
Prediction and experimental testing of Bacillus acidocaldarius thioredoxin stability.
In order to investigate further the determinants of protein stability, four mutants of thioredoxin from Bacillus acidocaldarius were designed: K18G, R82E, K18G/R82E, and D102X, in which the last four amino acids were deleted. The mutants were constructed on the basis of molecular dynamic studies and the prediction of the structure of thioredoxin from B. acidocaldarius, performed by a comparative molecular modelling technique using Escherichia coli thioredoxin as the reference protein. The mutants obtained by PCR strategy were expressed in E. coli and then characterized. CD spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry and thermodynamic comparative studies permitted comparison of the relative physicochemical behaviour of the four proteins with that of the wild-type protein. As predicted for the molecular dynamic analysis at 500 K in vacuo, the wild-type structure was more stable than that of the mutants; in fact the Tm of the four proteins showed a decrease of about 15 degrees C for the double and the truncated mutants, and a decrease of about 12 degrees C for the single mutants. A difference in the resistance of the proteins to denaturants such as guanidine HCl and urea was revealed; the wild-type protein always proved to be the most resistant. The results obtained show the importance of hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in determining protein stability and confirm that simulation methods are able to direct protein engineering in site-directed mutagenesis. (+info)
The relationship between nuclear magnetic resonance-visible lipids, lipid droplets, and cell proliferation in cultured C6 cells.
There is an ongoing controversy about the subcellular origin of the fatty acyl chains that give rise to the NMR visible mobile lipids (MLs) resonance at approximately 1.24 ppm in the 1H spectra of cells and solid tumors. Some groups have been supporting the hypothesis that triglycerides originating MLs are isotropically tumbling in small membrane microdomains, whereas other authors back the proposal that they are inside cytosolic or extracellular (necrotic areas) lipid droplets. Furthermore, MLs are frequently present in in vivo spectra recorded from human brain tumors, but the meaning of this detection is not fully clear. We have addressed the possible contribution of intracellular droplets to the ML pattern recorded from human brain tumors in vivo by studying cultured C6 rat glioma cells as a model system for astrocytic tumors. We show here that cultured C6 cells display ML resonances in high field (9.4 T) 1H NMR spectra recorded at 136 ms echo time when grown at saturation density conditions, but no MLs are visible for log-phase cells. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of cells stained with the lipophylic dye Nile red shows intracellular spherical yellow-gold droplets containing neutral lipids; cells at saturation density present lipid droplets of diameters about 1.6 microm in most cells (85%), whereas they are almost absent in log-phase cells (only 6% of the cells contain them). Furthermore, log-phase cells can be induced to display MLs and accumulate Nile red-positive droplets by culturing them for 24 h at pH 6.2. This acid pH effect can be fully reversed by 24 h of standard media incubation. Lipid droplet volume calculated from fluorescence microscopy preparations in an average cell is different for both culture conditions (2.2 times higher volume for saturation density than for pH-stressed cells). This difference in lipid droplet volume is reflected by a different ML peak height at 1.24 ppm (about 2 times higher for saturation density than for pH-stressed cells). Flow cytometry analysis shows that both culture conditions result in a slowing down of the proliferation rate of the cells. The fact that MLs are found to originate in lipid droplets inside cells that are growth compromised but still viable suggests that changes in the proliferative state of tumor cells, in the absence of necrosis, may be detected non invasively by in vivo NMR spectroscopy. (+info)
Targeted cytoplasmic irradiation with alpha particles induces mutations in mammalian cells.
Ever since x-rays were shown to induce mutation in Drosophila more than 70 years ago, prevailing dogma considered the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, such as mutations and carcinogenesis, as being due mostly to direct damage to the nucleus. Although there was indication that alpha particle traversal through cellular cytoplasm was innocuous, the full impact remained unknown. The availability of the microbeam at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility of Columbia University made it possible to target and irradiate the cytoplasm of individual cells in a highly localized spatial region. By using dual fluorochrome dyes (Hoechst and Nile Red) to locate nucleus and cellular cytoplasm, respectively, thereby avoiding inadvertent traversal of nuclei, we show here that cytoplasmic irradiation is mutagenic at the CD59 (S1) locus of human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells, while inflicting minimal cytotoxicity. The principal class of mutations induced are similar to those of spontaneous origin and are entirely different from those of nuclear irradiation. Furthermore, experiments with radical scavenger and inhibitor of intracellular glutathione indicated that the mutagenicity of cytoplasmic irradiation depends on generation of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that cytoplasm is an important target for genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, particularly radon, the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. In addition, cytoplasmic traversal by alpha particles may be more dangerous than nuclear traversal, because the mutagenicity is accomplished by little or no killing of the target cells. (+info)
Lipid bodies and lipid body formation in an oleaginous fungus, Mortierella ramanniana var. angulispora.
Mortierella ramanniana var. angulispora accumulates triacylglycerol (TG) in lipid bodies. Studies on lipid transport into lipid bodies are essential for elucidating mechanisms of lipid body formation. We used fluorescent dyes and fluorescent lipid analogs to visualize lipid body formation with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Different sizes of lipid bodies were stained by Nile red, a lipid body marker - one with a diameter of about 1 micrometer and the other with a diameter of about 2-3 micrometers. Lipid bodies matured into larger ones with culture. To metabolically monitor lipid bodies, we used 1-palmitoyl, 2-[5-(5,7-dimethyl boron dipyrromethene difluoride)-1-pentanoyl]-phosphatidic acid (C5-DMB-PA), and C5-DMB-phosphatidylcholine (C5-DMB-PC). These were taken up into fungal cells and incorporated into intracellular organelles at 30 degrees C. C5-DMB-PA was quickly incorporated into lipid bodies while C5-DMB-PC was initially incorporated into internal membranes, presumably endoplasmic reticulum membranes, and fluorescence was then gradually transported into lipid bodies. The transport of fluorescent lipids accompanied their metabolism into diacylglycerol (DG) and TG, which, taken together with the fluorescence distribution, suggested that conversion to TG was not necessary for transport into lipid bodies. It is likely that the synthesized DG was mainly located in lipid bodies and the conversion to TG took place in lipid bodies. C5-DMB-PA and C5-DMB-PC were converted to DG and TG in the membrane and lipid body fractions of this fungus, which agreed with in vivo metabolism of these fluorescent lipids and in vitro enzyme activity related to PA and PC metabolism. These results indicate that transport and metabolism of C5-DMB-PA and C5-DMB-PC represent two different routes for lipid body formation in this fungus. (+info)
Antimalarial activities of WR-194,965, an alpha-amino-o-cresol derivative.
Pilot appraisals of the activities of WR-194,965 and WR-204,165, two closely related o-cresol derivatives (both Mannich bases), in owl monkeys infected with the multidrug-resistant Vietnam Smith strain of Plasmodium falciparum showed that these compounds had similar levels of efficacy. Total course doses effecting 90% cures (CD(90)s) were 27 and 37 mg/kg of body weight for the respective compounds, values almost identical to the CD(90) of mefloquine (a highly promising 4-quinolinemethanol) against infections with the same strain, and the CD(90)s of chloroquine against infections with 4-aminoquinoline-susceptible strains. Expanded studies of the activities of WR-194,965 against infections with the Smith strain of P. falciparum and Vietnam Palo Alto strain of P. vivax, designed to guide projected evaluations in human volunteers, showed: (i) that the activity of this compound was a function of total dose administered, with single doses as effective as the same amount delivered in three or seven successive daily fractions; (ii) that all regimens effected rapid clearance of parasitemia; and (iii) that based on CD(90)s, this agent was twice as active against infections with the Palo Alto strain of P. vivax as against the Smith strain of P. falciparum. These findings, together with results of preclinical pharmacological studies pursued elsewhere, provided support for studies in human volunteers now underway. (+info)
Structural insight into a quinolone-topoisomerase II-DNA complex. Further evidence for a 2:2 quinobenzoxazine-mg2+ self-assembly model formed in the presence of topoisomerase ii.
Quinobenzoxazine A-62176, developed from the antibacterial fluoroquinolones, is active in vitro and in vivo against murine and human tumors. It has been previously claimed that A-62176 is a catalytic inhibitor of mammalian topoisomerase II that does not stabilize the cleaved complex. However, at low drug concentrations and pH 6-7, we have found that A-62176 can enhance the formation of the cleaved complex at certain sites. Using a photocleavage assay, mismatched sequences, and competition experiments between psorospermin and A-62176, we pinpointed the drug binding site on the DNA base pairs between positions +1 and +2 relative to the cleaved phosphodiester bonds. A 2:2 quinobenzoxazine-Mg2+ self-assembly model was previously proposed, in which one drug molecule intercalates into the DNA helix and the second drug molecule is externally bound, held to the first molecule and DNA by two Mg2+ bridges. The results of competition experiments between psorospermin and A-62176, as well as between psorospermin and A-62176 and norfloxacin, are consistent with this model and provide the first evidence that this 2:2 quinobenzoxazine-Mg2+ complex is assembled in the presence of topoisomerase II. These results also have parallel implications for the mode of binding of the quinolone antibiotics to the bacterial gyrase-DNA complex. (+info)
Biophysical and structural characterization of 1H-NMR-detectable mobile lipid domains in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts.
Nature and subcellular localization of 1H-NMR-detectable mobile lipid domains (ML) were investigated by NMR, Nile red fluorescence and electron microscopy, in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and their H-ras transformants (3T3ras) transfected with a high number of oncogene copies. Substantial ML levels (ratio of (CH2)n/CH3 peak areas R=1. 56+/-0.33) were associated in untransformed fibroblasts with both (a) intramembrane amorphous lipid vesicles, about 60 nm in diameter, distinct from caveolae; and (b) cytoplasmic, osmiophilic lipid bodies surrounded by own membrane, endowed of intramembrane particles. 2D NMR maps demonstrated that ML comprised both mono- and polyunsaturated fatty chains. Lower ML signals were detected in 3T3ras (R=0.76+/-0.37), under various conditions of cell growth. Very few (if any) lipid bodies and vesicles were detected in the cytoplasmic or membrane compartments of 3T3ras cells with R<0.4, while only intramembrane lipid vesicles were associated with moderate R values. Involvement of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis in ML generation was demonstrated by selective inhibition of endogenous phospholipase C (PC-plc) or by exposure to bacterial PC-plc. This study indicates that: (1) both cytoplasmic lipid bodies and membrane vesicles (possibly in mutual dynamic exchange) may contribute (although to a different extent) to ML signals; and (2) high levels of ras-transfection either inhibit ML formation or facilitate their extrusion from the cell. (+info)