(1/3453) Body mass status of school children and adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Lifestyle and disease patterns in Malaysia have changed following rapid economic development. It is important to find out how these changes have affected the nutritional status and health behaviour of the population, especially school children and adolescents. Therefore a survey on school children's and adolescents' health behaviours and perception in Kuala Lumpur was initiated. This paper only reports the observed body mass status of the school children. A total of 3620 school children were selected in this survey using the method of multi-stage sampling. The students were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires while weight and height were measured by the research team in the field. Using the cut-off of BMI-for-age >or= 95th percentile and <5th percentile for overweight and underweight respectively, there were a total of 7.3% of overweight students and 14.8% of underweight students. When analysed by gender; 7.5% of boys and 7.1% girls were overweight, while 16.2% of the boys and 13.3% of the girls were underweight. The youngest age group (11 years old) had the highest prevalence of underweight as well as overweight. With increasing age, the prevalence of underweight and overweight decreased and more children were in the normal weight range. The overall prevalence of overweight among the three ethnic groups was similar. However the prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indian students (24.9%), followed by Malays (18.9%) and Chinese (9.5%) (P <0.001). The results showed that both the problems of under- and over-nutrition co-exist in the capital city of Malaysia. The promotion of healthy eating and physical activities is required to address the problems of under- and over-nutrition in order to build up a strong and healthy nation in the future. (+info)
(2/3453) Noninvasive evaluation of endothelial function and arterial mechanics in overweight adolescents.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate endothelial function and arterial mechanics in apparently healthy overweight adolescents. DESIGN: Analytical observational study. SETTING: Tertiary hospital. METHODS: 40 asymptomatic, normotensive and non-smoking adolescents (11 to 18 years old) were evaluated. Of these 20 were overweight or obese as per International Obesity Task Force criteria while 20 were controls. High resolution ultrasonography was performed to measure flow mediated and Glyceryltrinitrate induced dilation in brachial artery, and arterial mechanics in common carotid artery. RESULTS: Overweight adolescents had significantly lower ratio of flow mediated dilation to Glyceryltrinitrate mediated dilation (0.40 plusminus 0.41 versus 0.61 plusminus 0.17; P = 0.039). On age and sex adjusted multiple regression analysis, the ratio of flow mediated to Glyceryltrinitrate mediated dilation had a significant negative association with body mass index (P = 0.012) and mean skin fold thickness (P = 0.011). However, for mean skin fold thickness, flow mediated dilation also had a significant negative association (P = 0.027). None of the measures of arterial mechanics were significantly different amongst overweights and controls, or significantly associated with either body mass index or mean skin fold thickness. CONCLUSION: Endothelial function can be mildly impaired in apparently healthy adolescents who are overweight (assessed by body mass index) or adipose (assessed by skin fold thickness). The use of overweight for screening adolescents likely to develop coronary artery disease is therefore justified. Skin fold thickness is a better indicator than Body Mass Index for predicting endothelial function. (+info)
(3/3453) Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and comorbid conditions among U.S. and Kentucky adults, 2000-2002.
INTRODUCTION: Obesity rates for adults in Kentucky are regularly among the highest in the nation. Since 1991, adult obesity in Kentucky and the United States has nearly doubled. This trend is of great concern because excess weight has been associated with several chronic diseases and conditions. This paper reports on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults in Kentucky between 2000 and 2002. The estimates produced by this study will provide baseline figures for developing Kentucky's statewide obesity action plan. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was performed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Prevalence estimates and odds ratios were calculated for the United States and Kentucky. RESULTS: In Kentucky, 24.2% of adults were obese, compared with 21.9% nationally (P < .001). There were also significantly more overweight adults in Kentucky than there were nationwide (P < .001). Logistic regression showed that overweight and obese adults were more likely to report various comorbid conditions. CONCLUSION: Overweight and obesity estimates in Kentucky were significantly higher than nationwide figures. However, overweight/obese adults in Kentucky were no more likely than their U.S. counterparts to report selected comorbid conditions. (+info)
(4/3453) Overweight and obesity at school entry among migrant and German children: a cross-sectional study.
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic and are increasing rapidly in both childhood and adolescence. Obesity is linked both to socioeconomic status and to ethnicity among adults. It is unclear whether similar associations exist in childhood. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in overweight and obesity in migrant and German children at school entry. METHODS: The body mass index (BMI) was calculated for 525 children attending the 2002 compulsory pre-school medical examinations in 12 schools in Bielefeld, Germany. We applied international BMI cut off points for overweight and obesity by sex and age. The migration status of children was based on sociodemographic data obtained from parents who were interviewed separately. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight in children aged 6-7 was 11.9% (overweight incl. obesity), the obesity prevalence was 2.5%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher for migrant children (14.7% and 3.1%) than for German children (9.1% and 1.9%). When stratified by parental social status, migrant children had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight than German children in the highest social class. (27.6% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.032) Regression models including country/region and socioeconomic status as independent variables indicated similar results. The patterns of overweight among migrant children differed only slightly depending on duration of stay of their family in Germany. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that children from ethnic minorities in Germany are more frequently overweight or obese than German children. Social class as well as family duration of stay after immigration influence the pattern of overweight and obesity in children at school entry. (+info)
(5/3453) Aging with quality of life--a challenge for society.
This article focus on biological, nutritional, psychological, medical and social variables which have proven useful indicators for assessing wellbeing of individuals. Such objective data (measured by the two investigators) and subjective information (self-reported by the participants) were collected between 2002-2003 from samples of healthy, free living females and males aged between 59 and 92 years from Vienna and surroundings. In both these groups some habitual practices (habit variables) were observed of elderly and old which have a negative influence on health i.e low daily liquid uptake and smoking. There is also a fair amount of overweight and obesity (BMI>or=30) and also of hypertension, particularly in males, There is also malnourishment, predominantly in females, as reflected by the Body Cell Mass Index. Several participants either were not aware of being hypertensive or admitted that they deliberately ignored medical advice. With respect to social variables there are greater percentages of married males and widowed females. Possibly partially resulting from this loss of the partner a greater number of females report feelings of loneliness than do males. Positive results relate to the overall high percentages of family contacts, positive feelings towards life and physical activity as reported by the large majority of the participants. These findings stress the need for further information of living habits of the elderly and old as a possible guide of helping improve their quality of life. (+info)
(6/3453) Childhood overweight and maturational timing in the development of adult overweight and fatness: the Newton Girls Study and its follow-up.
OBJECTIVE: Although several studies have suggested that early menarche is associated with the development of adult overweight, few have accounted for childhood overweight before menarche. STUDY DESIGN: A 30-year follow-up of the original participants in the Newton Girls Study, a prospective study of development in a cohort of girls followed through menarche, provided data on premenarcheal relative weight and overweight (BMI >85th percentile), prospectively obtained age at menarche, self-reported adult BMI, overweight (BMI > 25), obesity (BMI > 30) and, for a subset of participants, percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Of the 448 women who participated in the adult follow-up at a mean age of 42.1 years (SD: 0.76 years), 307 had childhood data with which to characterize premenarcheal and menarcheal weight status and age at menarche. After a follow-up of 30.1 years (SD: 1.4 years), reported BMI was 23.4 (4.8), 28% were overweight, and 9% were obese. In multivariate linear and logistic-regression analyses, almost all of the influence on adult weight status was a result of premenarcheal weight status (model R2 = 0.199). Inclusion of a variable to reflect menarcheal timing provided very little additional information (model R2 = 0.208). Girls who were overweight before menarche were 7.7 times more likely to be overweight as adults (95% confidence interval: 2.3, 25.8), whereas early menarche (at < or = 12 years of age) did not elevate risk (odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.66, 2.43). A similar pattern of results was observed when percentage body fat in adulthood was evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent influence of early maturation on adult female overweight is largely a result of the influence of elevated relative weight on early maturation. Interventions to prevent and treat overweight should focus on girls before they begin puberty. (+info)
(7/3453) Intervertebral disc height in treated and untreated overweight post-menopausal women.
BACKGROUND: The effect of the menopause and HRT on the intervertebral discs has not been investigated. METHODS: One hundred women were recruited, comprising of 44 post-menopausal women on HRT, 33 untreated post-menopausal women and 23 pre-menopausal women. The height of the intervertebral discs between the 12th thoracic vertebra and the 3rd lumbar vertebra was measured by utilizing the bone densitometer height cursors. RESULTS: The untreated menopausal group of women had the lowest total disc height (D1-D3: 1.95 0.31 cm). This was significantly lower than the pre-menopausal group D1-D3: 2.16 0.24 cm) and the hormone-treated group (2.2 0.26 cm) (P > 0.02). The 2nd intervertebral disc consistently maintained a significant difference between the untreated menopausal group (D2: 0.63 0.13) and the other two groups (pre-menopausal group (D2: 0.72 0.09 cm) and treated menopausal group (D2: 0.73 0.12 cm) (P > 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen-replete women appear to maintain higher intervertebral discs compared to untreated post-menopausal women. The estrogenic milieu may be relevant because of the significant impact it has on the hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans, the water content, collagen and elastin of the intervertebral discs. The maintenance of adequate disc height may allow the intervertebral discs to retain their discoid shape and viscoelastic function, containing vertical forces which may threaten spinal architecture leading to vertebral body compression fractures. (+info)
(8/3453) Basal endothelial nitric oxide release is preserved in overweight and obese adults.
OBJECTIVE: Impaired basal nitric oxide release is associated with a number of cardiovascular disorders including hypertension, arterial spasm, and myocardial infarction. We determined whether basal endothelial nitric oxide release is reduced in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adult humans. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Seventy sedentary adults were studied: 32 normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), 24 overweight (BMI > or = 25 < 30 kg/m(2)), and 14 obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)). Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to intra-arterial infusions of N(g)-monomethyl-L-arginine (5 mg/min), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, were used as an index of basal nitric oxide release. RESULTS: N(g)-monomethyl-L-arginine elicited significant reductions in FBF in the normal weight (from 4.1 +/- 0.2 to 2.7 +/- 0.2 mL/100 mL tissue/min), overweight (4.1 +/- 0.1 to 2.8 +/- 0.2 mL/100 mL tissue/min), and obese (3.9 +/- 0.3 to 2.7 +/- 0.2 mL/100 mL tissue/min) subjects. Importantly, the magnitude of reduction in FBF (approximately 30%) was similar among the groups. DISCUSSION: These results indicate that the capacity of the endothelium to release nitric oxide under basal conditions is not compromised in overweight and obese adults. (+info)