PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension.
A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration. (+info)
Fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride.
The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans have been observed. The cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. Secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. The results confirm that fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of this insect is dependent on the active transport of sodium ions and show that Na+/k+ exchange pumps are not involved in this process. (+info)
Alterations of heart function and Na+-K+-ATPase activity by etomoxir in diabetic rats.
To examine the role of changes in myocardial metabolism in cardiac dysfunction in diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body wt) to induce diabetes and were treated 2 wk later with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor (carnitine palmitoyltransferase I) etomoxir (8 mg/kg body wt) for 4 wk. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited a reduction in heart rate, left ventricular systolic pressure, and positive and negative rate of pressure development and an increase in end-diastolic pressure. The sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was depressed and was associated with a decrease in maximal density of binding sites (Bmax) value for high-affinity sites for [3H]ouabain, whereas Bmax for low-affinity sites was unaffected. Treatment of diabetic animals with etomoxir partially reversed the depressed cardiac function with the exception of heart rate. The high serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels were reduced, whereas the levels of glucose, insulin, and 3,3',-5-triiodo-L-thyronine were not affected by etomoxir in diabetic animals. The activity of Na+-K+-ATPase expressed per gram heart weight, but not per milligram sarcolemmal protein, was increased by etomoxir in diabetic animals. Furthermore, Bmax (per g heart wt) for both low-affinity and high-affinity binding sites in control and diabetic animals was increased by etomoxir treatment. Etomoxir treatment also increased the depressed left ventricular weight of diabetic rats and appeared to increase the density of the sarcolemma and transverse tubular system to normalize Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Therefore, a shift in myocardial substrate utilization may represent an important signal for improving the depressed cardiac function and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in diabetic rat hearts with impaired glucose utilization. (+info)
A chimeric gastric H+,K+-ATPase inhibitable with both ouabain and SCH 28080.
2-Methyl-8-(phenylmethoxy)imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine-3acetonitrile+ ++ (SCH 28080) is a K+ site inhibitor specific for gastric H+,K+-ATPase and seems to be a counterpart of ouabain for Na+,K+-ATPase from the viewpoint of reaction pattern (i.e. reversible binding, K+ antagonism, and binding on the extracellular side). In this study, we constructed several chimeric molecules between H+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunits by using rabbit H+,K+-ATPase as a parental molecule. We found that the entire extracellular loop 1 segment between the first and second transmembrane segments (M1 and M2) and the luminal half of the M1 transmembrane segment of H+, K+-ATPase alpha-subunit were exchangeable with those of Na+, K+-ATPase, respectively, preserving H+,K+-ATPase activity, and that these segments are not essential for SCH 28080 binding. We found that several amino acid residues, including Glu-822, Thr-825, and Pro-829 in the M6 segment of H+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit are involved in determining the affinity for this inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that a chimeric H+,K+-ATPase acquired ouabain sensitivity and maintained SCH 28080 sensitivity when the loop 1 segment and Cys-815 in the loop 3 segment of the H+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit were simultaneously replaced by the corresponding segment and amino acid residue (Thr) of Na+,K+-ATPase, respectively, indicating that the binding sites of ouabain and SCH 28080 are separate. In this H+, K+-ATPase chimera, 12 amino acid residues in M1, M4, and loop 1-4 that have been suggested to be involved in ouabain binding of Na+, K+-ATPase alpha-subunit are present; however, the low ouabain sensitivity indicates the possibility that the sensitivity may be increased by additional amino acid substitutions, which shift the overall structural integrity of this chimeric H+,K+-ATPase toward that of Na+,K+-ATPase. (+info)
Multiple mechanisms confer drug resistance to mitoxantrone in the human 8226 myeloma cell line.
Selection for in vitro drug resistance can result in a complex phenotype with more than one mechanism of resistance emerging concurrently or sequentially. We examined emerging mechanisms of drug resistance during selection with mitoxantrone in the human myeloma cell line 8226. A novel transport mechanism appeared early in the selection process that was associated with a 10-fold resistance to mitoxantrone in the 8226/MR4 cell line. The reduction in intracellular drug concentration was ATP-dependent and ouabain-insensitive. The 8226/MR4 cell line was 34-fold cross-resistant to the fluorescent aza-anthrapyrazole BBR 3390. The resistance to BBR 3390 coincided with a 50% reduction in intracellular drug concentration. Confocal microscopy using BBR 3390 revealed a 64% decrease in the nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio in the drug-resistant cell line. The reduction in intracellular drug concentration of both mitoxantrone and BBR 3390 was reversed by a novel chemosensitizing agent, fumitremorgin C. In contrast, fumitremorgin C had no effect on resistance to mitoxantrone or BBR 3390 in the P-glycoprotein-positive 8226/DOX6 cell line. Increasing the degree of resistance to mitoxantrone in the 8226 cell line from 10 to 37 times (8226/MR20) did not further reduce the intracellular drug concentration. However, the 8226/MR20 cell line exhibited 88 and 70% reductions in topoisomerase II beta and alpha expression, respectively, compared with the parental drug sensitive cell line. This decrease in topoisomerase expression and activity was not observed in the low-level drug-resistant, 8226/MR4 cell line. These data demonstrate that low-level mitoxantrone resistance is due to the presence of a novel, energy-dependent drug efflux pump similar to P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein. Reversal of resistance by blocking drug efflux with fumitremorgin C should allow for functional analysis of this novel transporter in cancer cell lines or clinical tumor samples. Increased resistance to mitoxantrone may result from reduced intracellular drug accumulation, altered nuclear/cytoplasmic drug distribution, and alterations in topoisomerase II activity. (+info)
Electrophysiologic effect of enalapril on guinea pig papillary muscles in vitro.
AIM: To study the direct effect of enalapril on cellular electrophysiology of myocardium. METHODS: Conventional microelectrodes technique was used to record the action potentials (AP) of guinea pig papillary muscles. RESULTS: Enalapril caused an increase of the AP amplitude (APA) and the resting potential (RP) in a concentration-dependent manner without any significant change of AP duration, Vmax and overshoot of AP. Superfusion of ouabain 0.5 mumol.L-1 reduced APA and RP, induced stable delayed after-depolarizations (DAD) at different basic cycle lengths (BCL) in a frequency-dependent manner. At BCL 200 ms, the amplitude of DAD was large enough to induce nonsustained triggered activity (TA). In additional presence of enalapril 10 mumol.L-1, the DAD amplitude at 500, 400, 300, and 200 ms were decreased from 5.3 +/- 2.3, 5.9 +/- 2.8, 7.4 +/- 2.1, and 8.9 +/- 1.3 to 2.6 +/- 0.7, 3.1 +/- 1.0, 3.7 +/- 1.5, and 5.3 +/- 1.1 (mV) respectively, all P < 0.01. The compensation intervals were increased in a similar frequency-dependent manner. The number of TA induced at BCL 200 ms was decreased from 3.6 +/- 0.7 to 0.8 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Enalapril directly inhibits DAD and TA induced by ouabain through increasing RP and APA, which may contribute to its anti-arrhythmic effect. (+info)
Role of K+ channels in A2A adenosine receptor-mediated dilation of the pressurized renal arcuate artery.
1. Adenosine A2A receptor-mediated renal vasodilation was investigated by measuring the lumenal diameter of pressurized renal arcuate arteries isolated from the rabbit. 2. The selective A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 dilated the arteries with an EC50 of 130 nM. The CGS21680-induced vasodilation was, on average, 34% less in endothelium-denuded arteries. 3. The maximum response and the EC50 for CGS21680-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact arteries were not significantly affected by incubation with the K+ channel blockers apamin (100 nM), iberiotoxin (100 nM), 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mM), glibenclamide (1 microM) or Ba2+ (10 microM). However, a cocktail mixture of these blockers did significantly inhibit the maximum response by almost 40%, and 1 mM Ba2+ alone or 1 mM Ba2+ in addition to the cocktail inhibited the maximum CGS21680-response by 58% and about 75% respectively. 4. CGS21680-induced vasodilation was strongly inhibited when the extracellular K+ level was raised to 20 mM even though the dilator response to 1 microM levcromakalim, a K(ATP) channel opener drug, was unaffected. 5. CGS21680-induced vasodilation was inhibited by 10 microM ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+/K(+)-ATPase, but ouabain had a similar inhibitory effect on vasodilation induced by 30 nM nicardipine (a dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist) or 1 microM levcromakalim. 6. The data suggest that K+ channel activation does play a role in A(2A) receptor-mediated renal vasodilation. The inhibitory effect of raised extracellular K+ levels on the A(2A) response may be due to K(+)-induced stimulation of Na+/K(+)-ATPase. (+info)
Excretion of taurocholate from isolated hepatocytes.
Efflux of taurocholate from isolated rat hepatocytes was studied to characterize the mechanism of bile acid secretion. Cells were incubated with taurocholate for 15 min. The amount of the intracellularly accumulated bile acid was directly related to the concentration in the medium. Transfer of the loaded cells from the incubation medium to a medium without taurocholate led to taurocholate efflux. Efflux was saturable, its activation energy amounted to 12 kcal/mol (50 kJ). It was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor antimycin A and to a lesser extend by the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Dinitrofluorobenzene and mersalyl, reagents which react with amino acids, inhibited efflux by about 30% when applied at concentrations of 50 muM. Ouabain increased the rate of efflux. The observations indicate that secretory functions are maintained in isolated liver cells. (+info)