Hypersomnia following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for snoring.
This report describes three cases who underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for severe snoring and who subsequently developed progressive excessive daytime sleepiness. All three cases were shown to have sleep fragmentation as a result of non-apnoeic episodic upper airway narrowing. These cases raise the possibility that increased upper airway resistance during sleep may be exacerbated or even caused by uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Ideally, sleep-disordered breathing should be carefully excluded before this surgery is offered as treatment for severe snoring. (+info)
Otorhinolaryngology, a product of the early 20th century, developed from the joining together of the separate departments of otology, whose practitioners were surgeons, and laryngology which was managed by physicians who also treated diseases of the nose and chest. The 20th century opened with brave attempts to perform skilful surgery under conditions of primitive anaesthesia and no antibiotics. The stimulus of two world wars led to significant advances in technology and greater opportunities to explore new and resurrect old surgical procedures. The discovery of antibiotics saw an end to acute mastoiditis and the complications of otitis media and sinusitis, as well as a decline in the number of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy operations. Over the last 30 years the specialty has undergone dramatic development and has taken advantage of new advances in endoscopy, microsurgery, the use of lasers, cytotoxic drugs, flap reconstruction and microchip technology. During the same period, although still calling themselves otorinolaryngologists, individual surgeons have subspecialised in otology, otoneurosurgery and skull-base surgery, head and neck surgery, phonosurgery, rhinology and facioplastic surgery, and paediatric otothinolaryngology. Each of these subspecialties has its own societies and specialist journals. (+info)
Effective securing of a drain.
The importance of effective anchoring of drains cannot be over emphasized. In this paper, we describe a safe and effective method of drain fixation used in 118 cases between January 1998-99 in our department. This useful technique has the advantage of minimizing inadvertent drain displacement with its consequent complications. (+info)
Quality of life assessment of treatment with dental appliance or UPPP in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea. A prospective randomized 1-year follow-up study.
The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the change in the three quality of life (QOL) dimensions of vitality, contentment and sleep before intervention and 1 year after treatment with a dental appliance or uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP); to compare the effect of treatment between these two treatment groups on these three dimensions; and to determine the relation between the QOL scores and somnographic values. Ninety-five patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) (AI > 5) were randomly allocated to either a dental appliance or UPPP treatment group. Seven patients withdrew after randomization but before treatment, leaving 88 patients eligible for treatment. The patients were examined using somnography and administered the Minor Symptoms Evaluation-Profile (MSE-P), a QOL questionnaire, before and 1 year after intervention. Thirty-seven patients in the dental appliance group and 43 in the UPPP group completed the 1-year follow-up. The mean values for the three dimensions vitality, contentment and sleep improved significantly 1 year after intervention in the dental appliance and UPPP groups. No difference in the QOL scores at baseline was noted between the groups. One year after intervention the UPPP group showed significantly more contentment than the dental appliance group. In contrast, vitality and sleep dimensions did not differ between the two treatment groups. No significant correlations were observed between the QOL scores and somnographic values. In conclusion, quality of life improved significantly in the dental appliance and UPPP groups 1 year after intervention. However, the dental appliance group showed a lower level of contentment than the UPPP group, even though the somnographic values were superior in the former group. (+info)
Unexpected overnight admissions following day-case surgery: an analysis of a dedicated ENT day care unit.
Day-case surgery is an integral part of otolaryngology, and many procedures can be performed as day-cases provided strict criteria are applied in the selection of patients. We reviewed patients who required unexpected admission from the day-case unit at the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London between April 1997 and March 1998. The total number of patients undergoing surgery was 1642. Of the total, 29 (1.8%) had to be admitted unexpectedly for overnight stay: 24 of these patients had undergone nasal surgery, representing 5.4% of all the nasal procedures performed--and the cause of all these admissions was haemorrhage. Further analysis revealed 22 of these 24 nasal operations had included a septoplasty. The total number of septoplasties performed was 163; thus, septoplasty had an unexpected admission rate of 13.4%. This information has been used to formulate stricter guidelines for day-case septoplasty admissions in our unit. (+info)
Conventional versus endoscopic inferior turbinate reduction: technique and results.
Different modalities of turbinate reduction procedures are available for treatment of vasomotor rhinitis not responding to appropriate medical therapy. Amongst these, conventional inferior turbinectomy (non-endoscopic) is the most widely performed procedure. With the advent of nasal endoscopes, inferior turbinoplasty has been gaining popularity worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare the post-operative complaints and hospital stay of conventional versus endoscopic inferior turbinate reduction techniques performed non-randomly on 15 and 21 patients of vasomotor rhinitis respectively from January 1998 to December 1999 at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM). A total of 36 patients (22 males and 14 females) with a mean age of 30.6 years underwent turbinate reduction procedures during this period with a post-operative follow up ranging from 3 months to 6.7 months (mean 3.8 months). There was a significant difference between the conventional and the endoscopic technique with regards to nasal discomfort (p = 0.05) and dry throat (p = 0.02) which was less severe when performed endoscopically. The average hospital stay in hours by the endoscopic technique was almost half compared to the conventional technique. Due to the improved visualisation and minimal post-operative complaints and reduced hospital stay, the technique of endoscopic inferior turbinoplasty is currently the procedure of choice at our center. In septoplasty when endoscopic instrument is not needed, the standard turbinate reduction procedure is still performed. The availability of pre and post-operative acoustic rhinomanometric evaluation will be helpful as an objective measurement of nasal symptoms in the near future. (+info)
Anti-inflammatory and surgical therapy of olfactory disorders related to sino-nasal disease.
Olfactory loss may be caused by mechanical obstruction or inflammation of the olfactory epithelium due to allergic/non-allergic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis with or without polyps. Treatment of olfactory loss related to sino-nasal disease is possible. Apart from surgical approaches and/or treatment with antibiotics, both systemic and topical steroids are effectively used in the therapy of olfactory loss related to sino-nasal disease. In most cases improvement of olfactory function appears to relate to the anti-inflammatory actions of the steroids used. While some details of therapeutic effect and dose regimen are not clear, systemic steroids are often helpful even in patients without nasal obstruction due to polyps or obvious inflammatory changes. (+info)
Lateral position decreases collapsibility of the passive pharynx in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
BACKGROUND: Reduction of nocturnal obstructive events during lateral position in patients with obstructive sleep apnea was previously reported. However, little information is available regarding mechanisms of the improvement and the precise pharyngeal site influenced by the lateral position. The authors tested the hypothesis that structural properties of the passive pharynx change by changing the body position from supine to lateral. METHOD: Total muscle paralysis was induced with general anesthesia in eight patients with obstructive sleep apnea, eliminating neuromuscular factors contributing to pharyngeal patency. The cross-sectional area of the pharynx was measured endoscopically at different static airway pressures. Comparison of static pressure-area plot between the positions allowed assessment of the influence of the position change on the mechanical properties of the pharynx. RESULTS: The static pressure-area curves of the lateral position were above those of the supine position, with increasing maximum cross-sectional area and decreasing the closing pressure at both retropalatal and retroglossal airways. CONCLUSIONS: Lateral position structurally improves maintenance of the passive pharyngeal airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. (+info)