Otitis externa associated with Malassezia sympodialis in two cats.
The lipid-dependent species Malassezia sympodialis was isolated from two cats with otitis externa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of lipid-dependent species of the genus Malassezia associated with skin disease in domestic animals. (+info
Molecular phylogenetic evidence for noninvasive zoonotic transmission of Staphylococcus intermedius from a canine pet to a human.
rRNA-based molecular phylogenetic techniques were used to identify the bacterial species present in the ear fluid from a female patient with otitis externa. We report the identification of Staphylococcus intermedius from the patient and a possible route of transmission. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms indicated that the dominant species present was S. intermedius. A pet dog owned by the patient also was tested and found to harbor S. intermedius. In humans, the disease is rare and considered a zoonosis. Previously, S. intermedius has been associated with dog bite wounds, catheter-related injuries, and surgery. This study represents the first reported case of a noninvasive infection with S. intermedius. (+info
Atypical lipid-dependent Malassezia species isolated from dogs with otitis externa.
During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of dogs with chronic otitis externa, lipid-dependent Malassezia species were isolated in three dogs. These species were identified as Malassezia furfur and M. obtusa but showed atypical assimilation patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of lipid-dependent species of the genus Malassezia in association with canine otitis. (+info
Fatal invasive cerebral Absidia corymbifera infection following bone marrow transplantation.
A 56-year-old dairy farmer received a fully HLA matched unrelated donor marrow transplant for high risk CML in chronic phase. His early post-transplant course was complicated by a series of massive intracerebral bleeds and by sepsis related to a malignant otitis externa. The microbial pathogen isolated from ear swabs was found to be Absidia corymbifera, but CT scan at the time showed no intracerebral extension. Despite neutrophil engraftment and aggressive antifungal management he succumbed. Autopsy revealed invasion of Absidia into the brain from the ear. We speculate that colonisation by Absidia resulted from occupational exposure. (+info
Topical fluoroquinolones for eye and ear.
Topical fluoroquinolones are now available for use in the eye and ear. Their broad spectrum of activity includes the common eye and ear pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For the treatment of acute otitis externa, these agents are as effective as previously available otic preparations. For the treatment of otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation, topical fluoroquinolones are effective and safe. These preparations are approved for use in children, and lack of ototoxicity permits prolonged administration when necessary. Topical fluoroquinolones are not appropriate for the treatment of uncomplicated conjunctivitis where narrower spectrum agents suffice; they represent a simplified regimen for the treatment of bacterial keratitis (corneal ulcers). When administered topically, fluoroquinolones are well tolerated and offer convenient dosing schedules. Currently, bacterial resistance appears limited. (+info
Study of lipid in the ear canal in canine otitis externa with Malassezia pachydermatis.
An epidemiological investigation of 120 canine otitis externa cases in 1,370 dogs was done on the incidence rate, ear pinna shapes, breeds and their relationships. Eighty-five cases (12.6%) in 672 dogs with pendulous ears and 35 cases (5.0%) in 698 dogs with erect ears had otitis externa, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.05). Ninety-five auditory cerumen specimens were cultured for Malassezia pachydermatis (M. pachydermatis) and analyzed for concentrations of major fatty acids. Although rates of cases positive for M. pachydermatis in both ear pinna shapes were almost the same, i.e. 55.2% in the pendulous group and 53.6% in the erect group, the average total fatty acid level of the pendulous ear group was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in the erect ear group after dismissing extraordinary levels in the Siberian husky. Isolated M. pachydermatis strains were examined for the effects of fatty acid supplementation on their growth. The majority of the strains utilized fatty acids and grew faster in fatty acid supplemented broth. These results suggest that M. pachydermatis, the predominant causative agent of canine otitis externa, prefers the auditory canal of dogs with lipid-rich earwax and grows fast, but growth strongly depends upon the canine breed. (+info
Pseudomonas dermatitis/folliculitis associated with pools and hot tubs--Colorado and Maine, 1999-2000.
During 1999-2000, outbreaks of Pseudomonas aeruginosa dermatitis and otitis externa associated with swimming pool and hot tub use occurred in Colorado and Maine. This report summarizes these outbreaks and provides recommendations for swimming pool and hot tub operation and maintenance, particularly when using offsite monitoring of water disinfectant and pH levels or when cyanuric acid is added to pools as a chlorine stabilizer. (+info
Otitis externa: a practical guide to treatment and prevention.
Otitis externa is most commonly caused by infection (usually bacterial, although occasionally fungal), but it may also be associated with a variety of noninfectious systemic or local dermatologic processes. The most characteristic symptom is discomfort that is limited to the external auditory canal, while the most characteristic signs are erythema and swelling of the canal with variable discharge. Excessive moisture and trauma, both of which impair the canal's natural defenses, are the two most common precipitants of otitis externa, and avoidance of these precipitants is the cornerstone of prevention. Thorough cleansing of the canal is essential for diagnosis and treatment, but flushing should be avoided. Acidification with a topical solution of 2 percent acetic acid combined with hydrocortisone for inflammation is effective treatment in most cases and, when used after exposure to moisture, is an excellent prophylactic. Other prophylactic measures such as drying the ears with a hair dryer and avoiding manipulation of the external auditory canal may help prevent recurrence. (+info