Tumor necrosis factor receptor family member RANK mediates osteoclast differentiation and activation induced by osteoprotegerin ligand.
A receptor that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation has been identified via genomic analysis of a primary osteoclast precursor cell cDNA library and is identical to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member RANK. The RANK mRNA was highly expressed by isolated bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitors and by mature osteoclasts in vivo. Recombinant OPGL binds specifically to RANK expressed by transfected cell lines and purified osteoclast progenitors. Transgenic mice expressing a soluble RANK-Fc fusion protein have severe osteopetrosis because of a reduction in osteoclasts, similar to OPG transgenic mice. Recombinant RANK-Fc binds with high affinity to OPGL in vitro and blocks osteoclast differentiation and activation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, polyclonal Ab against the RANK extracellular domain promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow cultures suggesting that RANK activation mediates the effects of OPGL on the osteoclast pathway. These data indicate that OPGL-induced osteoclastogenesis is directly mediated through RANK on osteoclast precursor cells. (+info)
The ligand for osteoprotegerin (OPGL) directly activates mature osteoclasts.
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and OPG-ligand (OPGL) potently inhibit and stimulate, respectively, osteoclast differentiation (Simonet, W.S., D.L. Lacey, C.R. Dunstan, M. Kelley, M.-S. Chang, R. Luethy, H.Q. Nguyen, S. Wooden, L. Bennett, T. Boone, et al. 1997. Cell. 89:309-319; Lacey, D.L., E. Timms, H.-L. Tan, M.J. Kelley, C.R. Dunstan, T. Burgess, R. Elliott, A. Colombero, G. Elliott, S. Scully, et al. 1998. Cell. 93: 165-176), but their effects on mature osteoclasts are not well understood. Using primary cultures of rat osteoclasts on bone slices, we find that OPGL causes approximately sevenfold increase in total bone surface erosion. By scanning electron microscopy, OPGL-treated osteoclasts generate more clusters of lacunae on bone suggesting that multiple, spatially associated cycles of resorption have occurred. However, the size of individual resorption events are unchanged by OPGL treatment. Mechanistically, OPGL binds specifically to mature OCs and rapidly (within 30 min) induces actin ring formation; a marked cytoskeletal rearrangement that necessarily precedes bone resorption. Furthermore, we show that antibodies raised against the OPGL receptor, RANK, also induce actin ring formation. OPGL-treated mice exhibit increases in blood ionized Ca++ within 1 h after injections, consistent with immediate OC activation in vivo. Finally, we find that OPG blocks OPGL's effects on both actin ring formation and bone resorption. Together, these findings indicate that, in addition to their effects on OC precursors, OPGL and OPG have profound and direct effects on mature OCs and indicate that the OC receptor, RANK, mediates OPGL's effects. (+info)
Osteoprotegerin ligand: a common link between osteoclastogenesis, lymph node formation and lymphocyte development.
The TNF-family molecule osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL; also known as TRANCE, RANKL or ODF) has been identified as the osteoclast differentiation factor and a regulator of T cell-dendritic cell interactions in the immune system. Surprisingly, the same molecule was identified as a crucial factor in early lymphocyte development and lymph node organogenesis. We will discuss the role of OPGL in bone remodelling and the immune system. (+info)
Relation of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor and FLICE-inhibitory protein expression to TRAIL-induced apoptosis of melanoma.
Past studies have shown that apoptosis mediated by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is regulated by the expression of two death receptors [TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) and TRAIL-R2] and two decoy receptors (TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4) that inhibit apoptosis. In previous studies, we have shown that TRAIL but not other members of the tumor necrosis factor family induce apoptosis in approximately two-thirds of melanoma cell lines. Here, we examined whether the expression of TRAIL-R at the mRNA and protein level in a panel of 28 melanoma cell lines and melanocytes correlated with their sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We report that at least three factors appear to underlie the variability in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. (a) Four of nine cell lines that were insensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis failed to express death receptors, and in two instances, lines were devoid of all TRAIL-Rs. Southern analysis suggested this was due to loss of the genes for the death receptors. (b) Despite the presence of mRNA for the TRAIL-R, some of the lines failed to express TRAIL-R protein on their surface. This was evident for TRAIL-R1 and more so for the TRAIL decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and -R4. Studies on permeabilized cells revealed that the receptors were located within the cytoplasm and redistribution from the cytoplasm may represent a posttranslational control mechanism. (c) Surface expression of TRAIL-R1 and -R2 (but not TRAIL-R3 and -R4) showed an overall correlation with TRAIL-induced apoptosis. However, certain melanoma cell lines and clones were relatively resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis despite the absence of decoy receptors and moderate levels of TRAIL-R1 and -R2 expression. This may indicate the presence of inhibitors within the cells, but resistance to apoptosis could not be correlated with expression of the caspase inhibitor FLICE-inhibitory protein. mRNA for another TRAIL receptor, osteoprotegerin, was expressed in 22 of the melanoma lines but not on melanocytes. Its role in induction of apoptosis remains to be studied. These results appear to have important implications for future clinical studies on TRAIL. (+info)
Osteopetrosis and osteoporosis: two sides of the same coin.
Together, osteoporosis and osteopetrosis comprise a substantial proportion of the bone diseases that severely affect humans. In order to understand and effectively treat these disorders, an understanding of the mechanisms controlling bone remodelling is essential. While numerous animal models of bone disease have been generated, the lack of correlation between these animal models and human disease has limited their utility in terms of defining therapeutic strategies. The generation and analysis of cathepsin K knockout mice has resulted in a model for pycnodysostosis, a rare human osteopetrotic disease, and is now providing considerable insights into both osteoclast function and potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of bone disease. This review highlights the importance of genes such as cathepsin K in understanding bone remodelling and illustrates a new trend towards understanding bone disease as a complete entity rather than as a series of unrelated disorders. (+info)
Effect of osteoprotegerin and osteoprotegerin ligand on osteoclast formation by arthroplasty membrane derived macrophages.
OBJECTIVE: Osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) is a newly discovered molecule, which is expressed by osteoblasts/bone stromal cells. This ligand and M-CSF are now known to be essential for osteoclast differentiation from marrow and circulating precursors. This study examined whether OPGL and its soluble receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG), influenced osteoclast formation from human arthroplasty derived macrophages, to determine if the effects of OPGL and OPG on these cells could contribute to the osteolysis of aseptic loosening. METHODS: OPGL (+/- dexamethasone/M-CSF) was added to cultures of macrophages isolated from the pseudomembrane of loosened hip arthroplasties incubated on glass coverslips and dentine slices. OPG was added to cocultures of arthroplasty derived macrophages and UMR106 osteoblast-like cells. Osteoclast differentiation in long term cultures was assessed by expression of macrophage (CD14) and osteoclast markers (tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), vitronectin receptor (VNR) and lacunar resorption). RESULTS: In the absence of osteoblastic cells, the addition of OPGL alone was sufficient to induce differentiation of macrophages (CD14(+), TRAP(-), VNR(-)) into TRAP(+) and VNR(+) multinucleated cells, capable of extensive lacunar resorption. OPG was found to inhibit osteoclast formation by arthroplasty macrophages in a dose dependent manner. OPG (100 ng/ml) more than halved the formation of TRAP(+) and VNR(+) cells and the extent of lacunar resorption in co-cultures of UMR106 cells and arthroplasty macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that macrophages, isolated from the pseudomembrane surrounding loose arthroplasty components, are capable of differentiating into osteoclastic bone resorbing cells and that OPGL is required for this to occur. OPG inhibits this process, most probably by interrupting the cell-cell interaction between osteoblasts and mononuclear phagocyte osteoclast precursors present in the pseudomembrane. (+info)
Involvement of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand/osteoclast differentiation factor in osteoclastogenesis from synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the mechanism by which osteoclasts are formed in culture of rheumatoid synoviocytes by exploring the involvement of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF). METHODS: Osteoclast formation was evaluated in cocultures of rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) utilizing separating membrane filters. RANKL/ODF expression was examined by Northern blotting in synovial tissues from 5 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and tissues from patients with giant cell tumor (GCT), osteosarcoma (OS), and osteoarthritis (OA). RANKL/ODF expression and the ability of synovial fibroblasts to support osteoclastogenesis were investigated in coculture with PBMC in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)2D3, and soluble RANKL/ODF and osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of OPG/OCIF on the osteoclastogenesis in the primary culture of rheumatoid synoviocytes and the coculture system were determined. RESULTS: Synovial fibroblasts did not induce osteoclastogenesis when separately cocultured with PBMC. Northern blotting revealed that RANKL/ODF was highly expressed in all tissues from RA and GCT patients, but not from OA or OS patients. Cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts efficiently induced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3, which was accompanied by up-regulated expression of RANKL/ODF and decreased production of OPG/OCIF. Osteoclastogenesis from synoviocytes was dose-dependently inhibited by OPG/OCIF. CONCLUSION: RANKL/ODF expressed on synovial fibroblasts is involved in rheumatoid bone destruction by inducing osteoclastogenesis and would therefore be a good therapeutic target. (+info)
Gene expression of osteoprotegerin ligand, osteoprotegerin, and receptor activator of NF-kappaB in giant cell tumor of bone: possible involvement in tumor cell-induced osteoclast-like cell formation.
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a rare primary osteolytic tumor of bone that is characterized by massive tissue destruction at the epiphysis of long bones. There is no evidence that tumor cells themselves are capable of bone destruction; instead, it appears that the tumor cells of GCT act by promoting osteoclastogenesis and, as a consequence, osteoclastic bone resorption. However, the mechanism by which this is achieved is not understood. Here we attempted to determine whether osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), the factor that is necessary and essential for osteoclastogenesis, is involved in tumor cell-recruited osteoclast-like giant cell formation in GCT. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we sought to determine mRNA expression of OPGL, its receptor RANK, and its decoy receptor OPG in three major cell types of GCT. We demonstrated that OPG mRNA was expressed in all three cell types of GCT, OPGL transcripts were mainly detected in spindle-shaped stromal-like tumor cells, whereas RANK was expressed only in macrophage-like mononuclear cells and multinuclear osteoclast-like giant cells. By semiquantitative RT-PCR, we also showed that the level of OPGL mRNA in GCT is much higher than that in normal bone and osteogenic osteosarcoma. In contrast, a similar level of OPG transcripts was detected in these three kinds of tissues, and RANK mRNA was detectable only in GCT tissues. We have further examined the regulation of gene expression of OPGL and OPG in tumor cells in response to osteotropic hormones. Administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and dexamethasone resulted in maximum up-regulation of OPGL level and down-regulation of OPG level in cultured GCT stromal-like tumor cells and the mouse bone marrow-derived ST-2 stromal cell line. Furthermore, we have shown that tumor cells of GCT induce differentiation of RANK-expressing myeloid RAW(264.7) cells into osteoclast-like cells in the presence of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and dexamethasone. Our findings suggest that OPGL is involved in the tumor cell-induced osteoclast-like cell formation in GCT. The ratio of OPGL/OPG by tumor cells may contribute to the degree of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. (+info)