(1/96) Hand bone midshaft enthesophytes: the influence of age, sex, and heritability.
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate whether development of enthesophytes is an age- and/or sex-associated phenomenon; (2) to clarify whether enthesophyte development is controlled by genetics; (3) to evaluate the correlations between the enthesophytes and osteophytes of the hand joints. DESIGN: The studied cohort comprised 359 Chuvashian (Russian Federation) pedigrees (424 nuclear families) and included 786 males and 723 females aged 18-90 years. The enthesophyte score (ES) was constructed as the overall number of enthesophytes at the midshaft of the phalanges of the second to the fifth fingers of both hands. The osteophyte score (OS) was constructed similarly. We used variance component (VC) analysis to examine the age-related patterns and compare the contribution of the genetic and common environmental factors to ES and OS variations. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: After age 25, ES increases with age (on average linearly). Age explains 45% of the ES variation in males but only 25% of the variation in females, in contrast to about 75% of the variation of OS in both sexes. At any age, males showed higher ES than females and the difference between sexes increased with age. Genetic components explained 20% of enthesophyte development variation. We did not find common additive genetic factors for ES and OS. The correlation coefficients between ES and OS were r=0.62 (P=0.0001) in males and r=0.50 (P=0.0001) in females. After age adjustment, the correlation decreased to r=0.087 (P=0.014) and r=0.14 (P=0.001) correspondingly. Most probably, enthesophytes and osteophytes are manifestations of different etiological processes. (+info)
(2/96) Knee Images Digital Analysis (KIDA): a novel method to quantify individual radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis in detail.
OBJECTIVE: Radiography is still the golden standard for imaging features of osteoarthritis (OA), such as joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Objective assessment, however, remains difficult. The goal of the present study was to evaluate a novel digital method to analyse standard knee radiographs. METHODS: Standardized radiographs of 20 healthy and 55 OA knees were taken in general practise according to the semi-flexed method by Buckland-Wright. Joint Space Width (JSW), osteophyte area, subchondral bone density, joint angle, and tibial eminence height were measured as continuous variables using newly developed Knee Images Digital Analysis (KIDA) software on a standard PC. Two observers evaluated the radiographs twice, each on two different occasions. The observers were blinded to the source of the radiographs and to their previous measurements. Statistical analysis to compare measurements within and between observers was performed according to Bland and Altman. Correlations between KIDA data and Kellgren & Lawrence (K&L) grade were calculated and data of healthy knees were compared to those of OA knees. RESULTS: Intra- and inter-observer variations for measurement of JSW, subchondral bone density, osteophytes, tibial eminence, and joint angle were small. Significant correlations were found between KIDA parameters and K&L grade. Furthermore, significant differences were found between healthy and OA knees. CONCLUSION: In addition to JSW measurement, objective evaluation of osteophyte formation and subchondral bone density is possible on standard radiographs. The measured differences between OA and healthy individuals suggest that KIDA allows detection of changes in time, although sensitivity to change has to be demonstrated in long-term follow-up studies. (+info)
(3/96) The potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cartilage: how the angiogenic factor could be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis?
Although adult human cartilage is physiologically avascular tissue, angiogenesis can be observed during the process of endochondral bone development. Inflammation in articular joints can also lead to neovascularization in cartilage. In such conditions, the expression of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has been shown to play a key role, controlling not only angiogenesis but also chondrocyte metabolism. Here we review recent research findings concerning the potential role of VEGF in cartilage, focusing in particular on its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. (+info)
(4/96) Early identification of radiographic osteoarthritis of the hip using an active shape model to quantify changes in bone morphometric features: can hip shape tell us anything about the progression of osteoarthritis?
OBJECTIVE: Few methods exist to measure the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) or to identify people at high risk of developing OA. Striking radiographic changes include deformation of the femoral head and osteophyte growth, which are usually measured semiquantitatively following visual assessment. In this study, an active shape model (ASM) of the proximal femur was used to determine whether morphologic changes to the bone could be quantified and used as a marker of hip OA. METHODS: One hundred ten subjects who had no signs of radiographic hip OA at baseline (Kellgren/Lawrence [K/L] scores 0-1) were selected from the Rotterdam Study cohort of subjects ages > or = 55 years. To measure the progression of OA, subjects were followed up with radiographic assessment after 6 years. At the 6-year followup, 55 subjects had established OA (K/L score 3), and in 12 of these OA subjects, the progression of the disease required a total hip replacement (THR). Age- and sex-matched control subjects had a K/L score of 0 at followup. Using the ASM, subjects were assessed for shape changes in the femoral head and neck before, during, and after the development of radiographic OA. Scores of shape variance, or mode scores, were assigned for 10 modes of variation in each subject, and differences in mode scores were determined. RESULTS: During followup, significant changes in shape of the proximal femur occurred within the OA group from baseline to followup (P < 0.0001 for mode 1 and P = 0.002 for mode 6) but not within the control group. At baseline (all subjects having K/L scores 0-1), there were significant differences in mode 6 between the OA group and the control group (P = 0.020), and in modes 3 and 6 between the OA subjects who underwent THR and the remaining OA subjects (P = 0.012 and P = 0.019, respectively). CONCLUSION: Compared with traditional scoring methods, the ASM can be used more precisely to quantify the deforming effect of OA on the proximal femur and to identify, at an earlier stage of disease, those subjects at highest risk of developing radiographic OA or needing a THR. The ASM may therefore be useful as an imaging biomarker in the assessment of patients with hip OA. (+info)
(5/96) Radiographic changes in the lumbar spine in former professional football players: a comparative and matched controlled study.
Heavy physical work and activity lead to degenerative changes, especially in the lumbar spine. We aimed to find out the occurence of radiographic changes (vertebral osteophytes, heights of lumbar dicsc, concavity index) and abnormalities of the lumbar spine in former professional football (association football or soccer) players according to their specialization (goalkeeper, defender, midfielder, forward) in their past professional sport life. We included 70 male former professional football players and 59 men as the control group. The football players group consisted of 15 defenders (21%), 29 midfielders (41%), 18 forwards (26%) and 8 goalkeepers (12%). Their mean professional football life was 11.04 years and the mean time period after their retirement was 13.87 years. Radiographs of both groups were taken to measure the disc height, concavity index and to determine osteophytes and abnormalities of the lumbar spine. FFbH-R score was assessed for daily activities. The mean FFbH-R score of football players was lower than that of the control group (P = 0.005). The total number of osteophytes in the player group was higher than in the control group (P = 0.001). The mean disc height of L1-L2 in football players was higher than in the control group (P = 0.045). The mean disc height of T12-L1 in goalkeepers was higher than in forward players (P = 0.019). The mean concavity index of L1 in forward players was lower than in defenders (P = 0.018). The mean disc heights of T12-L1 and L2-L3 were both higher in players whose professional sport life was >10 years than in players with =10 years (P = 0.018, P = 0.016). The mean disc height of L5-S1 was higher in players who had continued sport activity after retirement (P = 0.025). No statistically significant result was obtained with the rest of the variables. Playing football is heavy work. The decreased height of lumbar discs and the lower value of concavity index of forward players are because the lumbar spine of forward players is loaded more than in the rest of the players. (+info)
(6/96) Resemblance of osteophytes in experimental osteoarthritis to transforming growth factor beta-induced osteophytes: limited role of bone morphogenetic protein in early osteoarthritic osteophyte formation.
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage damage, synovial fibrosis, and osteophyte formation. Both transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) can induce the formation of osteophytes during OA, but their specific role in this process is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the respective contributions of TGFbeta and BMP-2 to OA. METHODS: Mouse knee joints injected with adenovirus (Ad-TGFbeta or Ad-BMP-2) were compared histologically with knee joints from murine models of OA (joints injected with collagenase and joints from STR/Ort mice with spontaneous OA). To further investigate the role of BMP during osteophyte formation, adenovirus Ad-Gremlin was injected into knee joints that had previously been injected with Ad-TGFbeta or collagenase. RESULTS: BMP-2 induced early osteophytes, which bulged from the growth plates on the femur and grew on top of the patella, whereas TGFbeta induced early osteophyte formation on the bone shaft beneath the collateral ligament on the femur as well as on top of the patella. The pattern of osteophyte formation during experimental OA closely resembled that of TGFbeta-induced osteophyte formation, but differed from the pattern induced by BMP-2. Ad-Gremlin proved to be able to totally block BMP-2-induced osteophyte formation. However, blocking BMP activity inhibited neither TGFbeta-induced nor experimental OA-associated osteophyte formation. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that the role of BMP during the onset of TGFbeta-induced and experimental OA-induced osteophyte formation is limited. The latter finding does not rule out a role of BMP during osteophyte maturation. (+info)
(7/96) Intra-articular injection of collagenase induced experimental osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joint in rats.
(8/96) A role for subchondral bone changes in the process of osteoarthritis; a micro-CT study of two canine models.