SPARC: a potential diagnostic marker of invasive meningiomas.
(1/465)SPARC, a secreted, extracellular matrix-associated protein implicated in the modulation of cell adhesion and migration, was evaluated as a marker for invasive meningiomas. Although the majority of meningiomas are clinically and morphologically benign, approximately 10% progress into atypical and malignant tumors, according to the standard criteria. However, a subset of meningiomas presents as histomorphologically benign tumors (WHO grade I), but they are clinically invasive. It has been suggested that these tumors should be classified as malignant, and that the patients may require adjuvant therapy and closer follow up. Unfortunately, a significant number of these tumors may not be recognized because the surgical specimen used to assess the grade of a tumor lacks the infiltrative interface with the brain, which is currently necessary to determine its invasive character. Therefore, a marker of heightened invasiveness would greatly facilitate the identification of this subset of patients. In this study, the immunohistochemical expression of SPARC in benign, noninvasive primary meningiomas was compared with its expression in invasive, aggressive, primary and recurrent meningiomas. SPARC was not expressed in the 9 benign, noninvasive tumors, but was highly expressed in the 20 invasive tumors, regardless of the grade. The findings suggest that SPARC is a potential diagnostic marker of invasive meningiomas and is capable of distinguishing the histomorphologically benign noninvasive from the histomorphologically benign but invasive meningiomas, in the absence of the infiltrative interface. (+info)
Rat embryo fibroblasts transformed by c-Jun display highly metastatic and angiogenic activities in vivo and deregulate gene expression of both angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors.
(2/465)The comparative tumorigenicity in rats and nude mice of cell lines derived from FR3T3 and transformed by either c-jun, ras, SV40 lt, or bovine papilloma virus type 1 (BPV1) oncogenes was investigated. c-Jun-transformed cells were as tumorigenic and metastatic as Ras-transformed cells. Latencies were short, and numerous pulmonary metastases were observed in all injected animals. In contrast, tumors induced by s.c. injection of SV40-transformed cells developed slower, and none of the animals who received injections i.v. presented with metastases. BPV1-transformed cells had an intermediate tumorigenic and metastatic activity. Microvessels present in the different tumors were revealed by immunostaining with Griffonia (Bandeiraea) Simplicifolia lectin 1. Tumors obtained with c-Jun-transformed cells exhibited more neovascularization than those induced by the other oncogenes. By comparison to FR3T3 cells or SV40- or BPV1-transformed cells, c-Jun-transformed fibroblasts repress the antiangiogenic thrombospondin-1 and SPARC genes, whereas we found that they express higher levels of gene expression of the angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, as compared with cells before passage in animals, thrombospondin-1, SPARC, and VEGF gene expression was also deregulated in cell lines isolated from primary tumors induced by BPV1-transformants. Our results indicate that the high transforming potential of c-Jun, evidenced as soon as transformation is established in vitro, correlates with deregulation of gene expression of both angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors leading to rapid neovascularization of tumors. (+info)
Differentially expressed genes in C6.9 glioma cells during vitamin D-induced cell death program.
(3/465)C6.9 rat glioma cells undergo a cell death program when exposed to 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3). As a global analytical approach, we have investigated gene expression in C6.9 engaged in this cell death program using differential screening of a rat brain cDNA library with probes derived from control and 1,25-D3-treated cells. Using this methodology we report the isolation of 61 differentially expressed cDNAs. Forty-seven cDNAs correspond to genes already characterized in rat cells or tissues. Seven cDNAs are homologous to yeast, mouse or human genes and seven are not related to known genes. Some of the characterized genes have been reported to be differentially expressed following induction of programmed cell death. These include PMP22/gas3, MGP and beta-tubulin. For the first time, we also show a cell death program induced up-regulation of the c-myc associated primary response gene CRP, and of the proteasome RN3 subunit and TCTP/mortalin genes. Another interesting feature of this 1,25-D3 induced-cell death program is the down-regulated expression of transcripts for the microtubule motor dynein heavy chain/MAP 1C and of the calcium-binding S100beta protein. Finally 15 upregulated cDNAs encode ribosomal proteins suggesting a possible involvement of the translational apparatus in this cell program. Alternatively, these ribosomal protein genes could be up-regulated in response to altered rates of cellular metabolism, as has been demonstrated for most of the other isolated genes which encode proteins involved in metabolic pathways. Thus, this study presents to our knowledge the first characterization of genes which are differentially expressed during a cell death program induced by 1, 25-D3. Therefore, this data provides new information on the fundamental mechanisms which participate in the antineoplastic effects of 1,25-D3 and on the machinery of a cell death program in a glioma cell line. (+info)
Primary mesenchymal cells isolated from SPARC-null mice exhibit altered morphology and rates of proliferation.
(4/465)SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine)/BM 40/osteonectin is a matricellular protein shown to function as a counteradhesive factor that induces cell rounding and as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. These activities have been defined in cell culture, in which interpretation has been complicated by the presence of endogenous SPARC. We therefore sought to determine whether cell shape and proliferation would be affected by the absence of SPARC. Mesangial cells, fibroblasts, and aortic smooth muscle cells were isolated from SPARC-null and age-matched, wild-type mice. In contrast to wild-type cells, SPARC-null mesangial cells exhibited a flat morphology and an altered actin cytoskeleton. In addition, vinculin-containing focal adhesions were distributed over the center of SPARC-null cells, whereas in wild-type cells, the number of focal adhesions was reduced, and these structures were restricted largely to the cell periphery. Although the SPARC-null fibroblasts did not display overt differences in cell morphology, the cells responded to exogenous recombinant SPARC by rounding up in a manner similar to that of wild-type fibroblasts. Thus, the expression of endogenous SPARC is not required for the response of cells to SPARC. Additionally, SPARC-null mesangial cells, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells proliferated faster than their respective wild-type counterparts. Null cells also showed a greater sensitivity to the inhibition of cell cycle progression by the addition of recombinant SPARC. The increased proliferation rate of SPARC-null cells appeared to be mediated, at least in part, by an increase in the cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin A. We conclude that the expression of SPARC influences the cellular architecture of mesangial cells and that SPARC plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle in mesangial cells, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells. (+info)
Induction of tenascin-C in cardiac myocytes by mechanical deformation. Role of reactive oxygen species.
(5/465)Mechanical overload may change cardiac structure through angiotensin II-dependent and angiotensin II-independent mechanisms. We investigated the effects of mechanical strain on the gene expression of tenascin-C, a prominent extracellular molecule in actively remodeling tissues, in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Mechanical strain induced tenascin-C mRNA (3.9 +/- 0.5-fold, p < 0.01, n = 13) and tenascin-C protein in an amplitude-dependent manner but did not induce secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine nor fibronectin. RNase protection assay demonstrated that mechanical strain induced all three alternatively spliced isoforms of tenascin-C. An angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist inhibited mechanical induction of brain natriuretic peptide but not tenascin-C. Antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine, catalase, and 1, 2-dihydroxy-benzene-3,5-disulfonate significantly inhibited induction of tenascin-C. Truncated tenascin-C promoter-reporter assays using dominant negative mutants of IkappaBalpha and IkappaB kinase beta and electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that mechanical strain increases tenascin-C gene transcription by activating nuclear factor-kappaB through reactive oxygen species. Our findings demonstrate that mechanical strain induces tenascin-C in cardiac myocytes through a nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent and angiotensin II-independent mechanism. These data also suggest that reactive oxygen species may participate in mechanically induced left ventricular remodeling. (+info)
Type IV collagen and laminin regulate glomerular mesangial cell susceptibility to apoptosis via beta(1) integrin-mediated survival signals.
(6/465)Postinflammatory scarring is characterized by changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and progressive loss of normal resident cells. In glomerular inflammation there is now evidence that unscheduled apoptosis (programmed cell death) of mesangial and other resident cells may mediate progression to irreversible glomerulosclerosis. In the current study we examined the hypothesis that ECM components may differ in their capacity to support mesangial cell survival by suppression of apoptosis. Using a well-established in vitro model of mesangial cell apoptosis, we found that collagen IV and laminin, components of normal mesangial ECM, protected rat mesangial cells from apoptosis induced by serum starvation and DNA damage, by a beta(1) integrin-mediated, but arg-gly-asp (RGD)-independent mechanism. In contrast, collagen I, fibronectin, and osteonectin/SPARC, which are overexpressed in diseased glomeruli, failed to promote rat mesangial cell survival. However, the survival-promoting effect of collagen IV and laminin was not associated with changes in cellular levels of apoptosis regulatory proteins of the Bcl-2 family. These experiments demonstrate that glomerular mesangial cell survival is dependent on interactions with ECM and provide insights into potential mechanisms by which resident cell loss may occur during acute inflammation and postinflammatory scarring of the kidney and other organs. (+info)
Cyclic expression of mRNA transcripts for connective tissue components in the mouse ovary.
(7/465)In the ovary, differentiation of germinal cells into primordial follicles, functional ovulatory follicles and corpus luteum, all take place in a connective tissue matrix. We postulated that extracellular matrix (ECM) of the ovary participates actively in ovarian functions. To test this, the mRNA levels for several ECM components were determined in the mouse ovary at six distinct stages of the 4-day oestrous cycle. Northern analysis revealed statistically significant cyclic expression patterns for the mRNAs coding for type III, IV and VI collagens as well as for the small proteoglycan, biglycan, and for syndecan-1 and osteonectin. The cyclic changes observed in the mRNAs for these structural components exceeded those for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, -9 and -13, and for tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, -2 and -3, where the changes were not statistically significant, despite their apparent role in ECM remodelling in the ovary. These observations support the hypothesis that cyclic changes in the production and degradation of ECM are part of normal ovarian function connected with follicular maturation, rupture and corpus luteum formation. (+info)
Collagen accumulation is decreased in SPARC-null mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
(8/465)Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) has been shown to be coexpressed with type I collagen in tissues undergoing remodeling and wound repair. We speculated that SPARC is required for the accumulation of collagen in lung injury and that its absence would attenuate collagen accumulation. Accordingly, we have assessed levels of collagen in SPARC-null mice in an intratracheal bleomycin-injury model of pulmonary fibrosis. Eight- to ten-week-old SPARC-null and wild-type (WT) mice received bleomycin (0.0035 U/g) or saline intratracheally and were subsequently killed after 14 days. Relative levels of SPARC mRNA were increased 2.7-fold (P < 0.001) in bleomycin-treated WT lungs in comparison with saline-treated lungs. Protein from bleomycin-treated WT lung contained significantly more hydroxyproline (191.9 microg/lung) than protein from either bleomycin-treated SPARC-null lungs or saline-treated WT and SPARC-null lungs (147.4 microg/lung, 125.4 microg/lung, and 113. 0 microg/lung, respectively; P < 0.03). These results indicate that SPARC is increased in response to lung injury and that accumulation of collagen, as indicated by hydroxyproline content, is attenuated in the absence of SPARC. The properties of SPARC as a matricellular protein associated with cell proliferation and matrix turnover are consistent with its participation in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. (+info)