(1/3222) Prevalence of generalised osteoarthritis in patients with advanced hip and knee osteoarthritis: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study.
OBJECTIVES: Different prevalences of generalised osteoarthritis (GOA) in patients with knee and hip OA have been reported. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate radiographic and clinical patterns of disease in a hospital based population of patient subgroups with advanced hip and knee OA and to compare the prevalence of GOA in patients with hip or knee OA, taking potential confounding factors into account. METHODS: 420 patients with hip OA and 389 patients with knee OA scheduled for unilateral total joint replacement in four hospitals underwent radiographic analysis of ipsilateral and contralateral hip or knee joint and both hands in addition to a standardised interview and clinical examination. According to the severity of radiographic changes in the contralateral joints (using Kellgren-Lawrence > or = grade 2 as case definition) participants were classified as having either unilateral or bilateral OA. If radiographic changes of two joint groups of the hands (first carpometacarpal joint and proximal/distal interphalangeal joints defined as two separate joint groups) were present, patients were categorised as having GOA. RESULTS: Patients with hip OA were younger (mean age 60.4 years) and less likely to be female (52.4%) than patients with knee OA (66.3 years and 72.5% respectively). Intensity of pain and functional impairment at hospital admission was similar in both groups, while patients with knee OA had a longer symptom duration (median 10 years) compared with patients with hip OA (5 years). In 41.7% of patients with hip OA and 33.4% of patients with knee OA an underlying pathological condition could be observed in the replaced joint, which allowed a classification as secondary OA. Some 82.1% of patients with hip and 87.4% of patients with knee OA had radiographic changes in their contralateral joints (bilateral disease). The prevalence of GOA increased with age and was higher in female patients. GOA was observed more often in patients with knee OA than in patients with hip OA (34.9% versus 19.3%; OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.56, 3.21). Adjustment for the different age and sex distribution in both patient groups, however, takes away most of the difference (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.96). CONCLUSION: The crude results confirm previous reports as well as the clinical impression of GOA being more prevalent in patients with advanced knee OA than in patients with advanced hip OA. However, these different patterns might be attributed to a large part to a different distribution of age and sex in these hospital based populations. (+info)
(2/3222) Down regulation by iron of prostaglandin E2 production by human synovial fibroblasts.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of iron on the prostaglandin (PG) E2 production by human synovial fibroblasts in vitro. METHODS: Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients and cultured in medium. Synovial fibroblasts were stimulated by human recombinant interleukin (IL) 1 beta (0.1-10 ng/ml) with or without ferric citrate (Fe-citrate, 0.01-1 mM). The amount of PGE2 in the culture medium was measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The production of PGE2 by the synovial fibroblasts was increased by stimulation with IL1 beta at all concentrations tested. Fe-citrate but not sodium citrate (Na-citrate) down regulated the production of PGE2 by the synovial fibroblasts, both with and without stimulation by IL1 beta. Fe-citrate inhibited the spontaneous PGE2 production by the cells in a dose dependent manner, and a maximum inhibition by Fe-citrate was observed at the concentration of 0.1 mM with IL1 beta stimulation. The down regulation by iron was reversed by the co-addition of desferrioxamine (100 micrograms/ml), an iron chelator. CONCLUSION: Iron down regulates the PGE2 production by synovial fibroblasts in vitro. (+info)
(3/3222) Total knee replacement: should it be cemented or hybrid?
OBJECTIVE: To compare the complication rates associated with total knee arthroplasty against the types of fixation (hybrid or cemented), using a single total knee design (the anatomic modular knee [AMK] prosthesis). DESIGN: A prospective, nonrandomized, controlled trial. SETTING: University Hospital in London, Ont., a tertiary care teaching centre. PATIENTS: Two groups made up of 484 knees in 395 patients (89 bilateral). INTERVENTIONS: In 260 knees a hybrid configuration (cemented tibia and noncemented femur) was used (group 1). In 224 knees the femoral and tibial components were cemented (group 2). All patellae were cemented in both groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical results were assessed by The Knee Society Clinical Rating Scores at 3 months, 6 months and yearly intervals. Radiographic results were determined by 3-foot standing radiographs and at each follow-up visit standing knee radiographs, lateral and skyline views. Radiographs were analysed for alignment, presence or absence of radiolucent lines or changes in the position of the implant. All reoperations and nonoperative complications were recorded. RESULTS: At an average follow-up of 4.8 years, 8 knees (1.6%) required reoperation. An analysis of the complications leading to reoperation demonstrated no difference between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in outcome whether the femoral component was cemented or not. Medium-term results of the AMK are excellent with a very low reoperation rate. (+info)
(4/3222) Expression of NG2/human melanoma proteoglycan in human adult articular chondrocytes.
OBJECTIVE: NG2 is a transmembrane chondroitin sulfate (CS) rich proteoglycan originally identified in rats. It has recently been shown to be identical to human melanoma proteoglycan (HMPG). In rats NG2 has a limited distribution in adult tissues, being expressed predominantly by neuronal and glial cells whereas during development it is also expressed in developing mesenchyme including cartilage. NG2/HMPG has putative roles in interactions between glial and melanoma cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. This study was undertaken to assess whether NG2/HMPG was expressed by normal and osteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes. DESIGN: Cryostat sections of human fetal knee joints and normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage were immunostained with antibodies against rat NG2 (N143.8) and HMPG (M28B5, 9.2.27). Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting was carried out on protein extracts of chondrocytes from normal and osteoarthritic cartilage. Immunofluorescence of NG2 and potential ligands was carried out in vitro on cells from normal and osteoarthritic cartilage. RESULTS: Fetal and both normal and osteoarthritic adult cartilage showed strong immunoreactivity for NG2/HMPG. Western blotting showed a smeared component of molecular weight greater than 400 kDa and a faint band at 250 kDa which became predominant upon digestion with chondroitinase ABC. Immunofluorescence of chondrocytes in vitro showed NG2 to be distributed in a punctate pattern without co-localization of actin or several ECM proteins including fibronectin and type VI collagen. CONCLUSION: NG2/HMPG is expressed by human fetal and adult chondrocytes and in adult articular chondrocytes the core protein is chondroitin sulfated. The function of this molecular in human articular cartilage remains to be defined. (+info)
(5/3222) Where does it hurt? Pain localization in osteoarthritis of the knee.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the most common sites of pain in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to investigate clinical, radiographic and psychosocial associations of pain occurring in different locations. DESIGN: Sixty-eight outpatients with knee OA were interviewed in detail about their knee pain. Location of pain was recorded on a standard drawing of the knee. Validated instruments were used to measure pain severity, function, depression, anxiety, quality of life, fatigue, helplessness, self efficacy. Pain threshold was measured by dolorimetry and a knee examination performed. Radiographs (anterioposterior and lateral) were viewed if available. RESULTS: Most (85.3%) patients reported either 'generalized' (N = 35, 51.5%) or 'medial' (N = 23, 33.8%) knee pain. There were no differences between groups in pain severity, demographic or psychosocial variables, pain threshold or radiographic location or severity. However, function was significantly worse in the 'generalized' group (WOMAC function score 48.9 +/- 20.8 vs 34.2 +/- 22.3; P = 0.01): this remained significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The difference in function was most marked for activities involving knee bending. Early morning stiffness was also greater in the generalized group. CONCLUSIONS: Knee pain is not the same in all individuals with knee OA, confirming the heterogeneity of the condition. Location of pain is usually either generalized or medial. Patients with these patterns do not differ in demographic, radiographic or psychosocial variables but important differences in functional ability can be detected, suggesting differences in the underlying causes of pain and disability between the two groups. (+info)
(6/3222) Longitudinal and cross-sectional variability in markers of joint metabolism in patients with knee pain and articular cartilage abnormalities.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the within- and between-patient variability in the concentrations of synovial fluid, serum and urine markers of joint tissue metabolism in a cohort of patients with knee pain and cartilage changes consistent with early-stage knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Samples of synovial fluid, serum, and urine were obtained from 52 patients on eight different occasions during 1 year, as part of a clinical trial in patients with cartilage abnormalities and knee pain. In joint fluid, aggrecan fragments were quantified by dye precipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 by sandwich ELISAs. In serum, keratan sulfate was quantified by ELISA. Type I collagen N-telopeptide cross-links in urine were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: The degree of cross-sectional variability in marker concentrations did not vary between the different sampling occasions, and did not differ between the periods of weeks 0 (baseline), 1-4 (treatment) and 13-26 (follow-up). Both between-patient and within-patient coefficients of variation varied for markers in different body fluid compartments, with the lowest variability for serum keratan sulfate, followed by urine type I collagen N-telopeptide crosslinks, and the highest for synovial fluid markers. For synovial fluid, aggrecan fragments showed the least variability, and matrix metalloproteinases the highest. One patient with septic arthritis showed a fivefold peak increase in joint fluid aggrecan fragment concentrations, while the concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-3 increased 100-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular markers of joint tissue metabolism have been suggested as, for example, outcome measures for clinical trials of disease-modifying drugs in osteoarthritis. This report is the first to present data on between- and within-patient variability for such molecular markers in three different body fluid compartments in stable cohort of patients. The availability of such data enables calculations to determine the number of patients needed in prospective studies using these markers as outcome measures. (+info)
(7/3222) Longitudinal analysis of the relationship between serum insulin-like growth factor-I and radiographic knee osteoarthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and both incident and progressive radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. DESIGN: Subjects had bilateral weight-bearing, anterior-posterior knee radiographs performed in 1983-1985 and again in 1992-1993. IGF-I levels were measured from blood specimens obtained in 1988-1989 by a competitive binding radio-immunoassay (RIA) after separation with octadecasilyl-silica cartridges of serum IGF-I from binding proteins. Participants without baseline radiographic OA [Kellgren and Lawrence grades (K&L) = 0-1] were classified as having incident disease if they had K&L > or = 2 grades at follow-up. Progressive OA was defined as an increase in K&L score of > or = 1 in knees with baseline OA (K&L > or = 2). All analyses were knee-based and sex-specific. We examined IGF-I tertiles in relation to the risk of incident and progressive radiographic OA separately, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and baseline K&L score, and used generalized estimating equations to adjust for the correlation between fellow knees. RESULTS: Four hundred and forty-one participants had knee radiographs and serum IGF-I levels measured. No associations were found for serum IGF-I levels and incident [women: OR = 0.9 (0.6-1.7), men OR = 1.2 (0.6-2.6)] or progressive [women OR = 0.9 (0.6-1.6), men OR = 0.9 (0.3-3.0)] radiographic knee OA in either sex. Neither did we observe any association between IGF-I and worsening of individual radiographic features of OA (i.e., osteophyte growth and joint space loss). CONCLUSION: In summary, this longitudinal study did not demonstrate any association of serum IGF-I and incident or progressive radiographic knee OA. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of IGF-I in OA. (+info)
(8/3222) 1H NMR investigation of changes in the metabolic profile of synovial fluid in bilateral canine osteoarthritis with unilateral joint denervation.
OBJECTIVE: High resolution 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been used to compare the effects of unilateral knee-joint denervation on the biochemical profiles of synovial fluid in a bilateral canine model of osteoarthritis. METHOD: Paired synovial fluid samples were obtained from seven dogs all of which had previously undergone bilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection, unilateral knee denervation and contralateral sham nerve exposure. All synovial fluid samples were then analyzed using 500 MHz 1H-CPMG spin-echo NMR Spectroscopy to assess differences in endogenous metabolite levels between the paired fluids. RESULTS: The results indicate statistically significant increases in glycerol, hydroxybutyrate, glutamine/glutamate, creatinine/creatine, acetate and N-acetyl-glycoprotein concentrations in synovial fluids from denervated with respect to control knees. Furthermore, significant trends towards elevated lactate, alanine and pyruvate levels in the denervated knee fluids are consistent with our previous findings comparing NMR spectroscopy metabolic profiles of normal and osteoarthritic canine synovial fluids. CONCLUSION: This study lends support to the principle of neurogenic acceleration of OA in that the observed differences in metabolite concentrations found in the denervated knee fluids seem to correlate with metabolic changes resulting from aggravation of the OA process caused by joint denervation. (+info)