Migration of the Duraloc cup at two years.
We carried out 71 primary total hip arthroplasties using porous-coated, hemispherical press-fit Duraloc '100 Series' cups in 68 consecutive patients; 61 were combined with the cementless Spotorno stem and ten with the cemented Lubinus SP II stem. Under-reaming of 2 mm achieved a press-fit. Of the 71 hips, 69 (97.1%) were followed up after a mean of 2.4 years. Migration analysis was performed by the Ein Bild Rontgen Analyse method, with an accuracy of 1 mm. The mean total migration after 24 months was 1.13 mm. Using the definition of loosening as a total migration of 1 mm, it follows that 30 out of 63 cups (48%) were loose at 24 months. (+info)
Long-term results of spherical acetabular osteotomy.
We have examined the effect of the Wagner spherical acetabular osteotomy on preserving the joint in 38 hips with a mean follow-up of 17 years. At the time of the initial operation, 55% of patients had clinical symptoms and 30 joints showed minimal or absent radiological signs of osteoarthritis. At follow-up, 54% of patients had a good functional result. The osteotomy improved the mean centre-edge angle from -3 degrees to +15 degrees, the mean anterior centre-edge angle to 23 degrees and the acetabular head index to 75%. The obliquity of the acetabular roof decreased from 28 degrees to 16 degrees. One patient improved, but 14 deteriorated with joint degeneration. Of these, one progressed because of postoperative deep-tissue infection and five due to undercorrection. One patient needed total joint replacement after 14 years. At 17 years after operation, Wagner osteotomy had prevented progression of secondary arthritis in 63% of cases. (+info)
Cytokine levels in synovial fluid from hips with well-functioning or loose prostheses.
We analysed synovial fluid from 88 hips, 38 with osteoarthritis and 12 with well-functioning and 38 with loose hip prostheses. The levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta (71 hips) and IL-6 (45 hips) were measured using the ELISA technique. Joints with well-functioning or loose prostheses had significantly increased levels of TNF-alpha compared with those with osteoarthritis. Hips with aseptic loosening also had higher levels of IL-1beta but not of IL-6 compared with those without an implant. The levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta did not differ between hips with stable and loose prostheses. Higher levels of TNF-alpha were found in hips with bone resorption of type II and type III (Gustilo-Pasternak) compared with those with type-I loosening. The level of cytokines in joint fluid was not influenced by the time in situ of the implants or the age, gender or area of the osteolysis as measured on conventional radiographs. Our findings support the theory that macrophages in the joint capsule increase the production of TNF-alpha at an early phase probably because of particle load and in the absence of clinical loosening. Since TNF-alpha has an important role in the osteolytic process, the interfaces should be protected from penetration of joint fluid. (+info)
Prevalence of generalised osteoarthritis in patients with advanced hip and knee osteoarthritis: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study.
OBJECTIVES: Different prevalences of generalised osteoarthritis (GOA) in patients with knee and hip OA have been reported. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate radiographic and clinical patterns of disease in a hospital based population of patient subgroups with advanced hip and knee OA and to compare the prevalence of GOA in patients with hip or knee OA, taking potential confounding factors into account. METHODS: 420 patients with hip OA and 389 patients with knee OA scheduled for unilateral total joint replacement in four hospitals underwent radiographic analysis of ipsilateral and contralateral hip or knee joint and both hands in addition to a standardised interview and clinical examination. According to the severity of radiographic changes in the contralateral joints (using Kellgren-Lawrence > or = grade 2 as case definition) participants were classified as having either unilateral or bilateral OA. If radiographic changes of two joint groups of the hands (first carpometacarpal joint and proximal/distal interphalangeal joints defined as two separate joint groups) were present, patients were categorised as having GOA. RESULTS: Patients with hip OA were younger (mean age 60.4 years) and less likely to be female (52.4%) than patients with knee OA (66.3 years and 72.5% respectively). Intensity of pain and functional impairment at hospital admission was similar in both groups, while patients with knee OA had a longer symptom duration (median 10 years) compared with patients with hip OA (5 years). In 41.7% of patients with hip OA and 33.4% of patients with knee OA an underlying pathological condition could be observed in the replaced joint, which allowed a classification as secondary OA. Some 82.1% of patients with hip and 87.4% of patients with knee OA had radiographic changes in their contralateral joints (bilateral disease). The prevalence of GOA increased with age and was higher in female patients. GOA was observed more often in patients with knee OA than in patients with hip OA (34.9% versus 19.3%; OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.56, 3.21). Adjustment for the different age and sex distribution in both patient groups, however, takes away most of the difference (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.96). CONCLUSION: The crude results confirm previous reports as well as the clinical impression of GOA being more prevalent in patients with advanced knee OA than in patients with advanced hip OA. However, these different patterns might be attributed to a large part to a different distribution of age and sex in these hospital based populations. (+info)
The pathology of bone allograft.
We analysed the histological findings in 1146 osteoarthritic femoral heads which would have been considered suitable for bone-bank donation to determine whether pathological lesions, other than osteoarthritis, were present. We found that 91 femoral heads (8%) showed evidence of disease. The most common conditions noted were chondrocalcinosis (63 cases), avascular necrosis (13), osteomas (6) and malignant tumours (one case of low-grade chondrosarcoma and two of well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma). There were two with metabolic bone disease (Paget's disease and hyperparathyroid bone disease) and four with inflammatory (rheumatoid-like) arthritis. Our findings indicate that occult pathological conditions are common and it is recommended that histological examination of this regularly used source of bone allograft should be included as part of the screening protocol for bone-bank collection. (+info)
Apoptosis induced by nitric oxide is associated with nuclear p53 protein expression in cultured osteoarthritic synoviocytes.
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical molecule endogenously produced by NO synthases that may play a critical role in inflammation. It inhibits cell proliferation and may be involved in the induction of apoptosis in various cellular models. Recently, the presence of apoptotic cells was reported in the synovium of osteoarthritic (OA) patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether synovial fibroblasts are target cells for NO-induced apoptosis. The expression of p53 protein was also studied to evaluate the ability of synovial cells to repair DNA fragmentation. METHODS: Synoviocytes from OA patients were treated with two NO donors: sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). Apoptosis was analysed by transmission electron microscopy. DNA content was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis after propidium iodide staining and recognition of DNA strand break determined by the TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) method. P53 protein expression was studied by immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody. RESULTS: After 6 hours, cells treated with NO donors (1.25 mM) showed a cytoplasmic condensation and vacuolization. DNA strand break analysis by the TUNEL method confirmed the presence of a DNA fragmentation after 24 hours of NO treatment. There was also a progressive decrease in the DNA diploid peak in response to NO donors. In parallel, p53 protein, constitutively expressed in cytoplasmic synovial cells, showed markedly increased expression after a 6-hour NO exposure and displayed prominent nuclear staining after 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential role of NO for the induction of synoviocyte apoptosis in OA. The increased expression of p53 in the nucleus may play a protective role in the control of apoptosis. (+info)
Reliability of radiographic assessment in hip and knee osteoarthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility of commonly used radiographic measures in hip and knee OA and to overcome certain limits of existing knowledge on their reliability from previous studies. DESIGN: Three readers evaluated 100 hip joints (50 pelvic X-rays) and 100 antero-posterior and lateral knee films of a hospital-based sample of patients with radiographic OA at two time points 3 months apart. They retrospectively estimated the presence and severity of joint specific individual radiographic features (osteophyte formation and joint space narrowing at different sites, cysts, subchondral sclerosis, bony deformity and chondrocalcinosis) and two different overall scores. Within and between observer reproducibility was calculated by intra-class correlation coefficient. RESULTS: At the hip joint excellent intra- as well as inter-observer reliability for superior joint space narrowing (JSN) and femoral head deformity could be demonstrated, while the assessment of medial JSN, osteophytes and acetabular sclerosis depends on the level of the investigator's experience. At the knee joint, femorotibial and patellofemoral osteophytes showed a high intra- and inter-observer reliability. Grading of JSN is highly reader dependent; rating of subchondral sclerosis and chondrocalcinosis does not seem to be reproducible enough. The overall scores showed an excellent reproducibility both at hip and knee joints. CONCLUSION: A reliable radiographic severity grading of hip and knee OA is possible with the application of global scores and individual features, if joint specific items are selected and readers are trained enough. (+info)
Gait analysis in coxarthrosis.
I report the results from gait analysis for coxarthrotic patients using a ground reaction force plate and a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Twenty-seven coxarthrotic patients, and 9 healthy females as controls, participated in this study. The waveform of the ground reaction force and the joint moment during the stance phase were evaluated. The waveform of the hip joint moment changed and flattened in both pre-coxarthrosis and early-coxarthrotic patients, compared to those in controls, indicating that coxarthrotic patients adopted a particular gait pattern to reduce the load on the affected hip joint. Beyond X-ray observations and physical examinations, joint moment analysis could achieve a more objective evaluation of the clinical stage of coxarthrosis. (+info)