22-Oxacalcitriol ameliorates high-turnover bone and marked osteitis fibrosa in rats with slowly progressive nephritis.
22-Oxacalcitriol ameliorates high-turnover bone and marked osteitis fibrosa in rats with slowly progressive nephritis. BACKGROUND: 22-Oxacalcitriol (OCT) is a unique vitamin D analogue with less calcemic activity than calcitriol, and it effectively suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in uremic rats. This study was performed to examine the long-term effect of intravenously administered OCT on high-turnover bone disease in model rats of slowly progressive renal failure. METHODS: Slowly progressive renal failure rats were made by a single injection of glycopeptide isolated from rat renal cortical tissues. At 250 days, glycopeptide-induced nephritis (GN) rats were divided into three groups with the same levels of serum creatinine and PTH, and they received either OCT (0.03 or 0.15 microg/kg body wt) or vehicle given intravenously three times per week for 15 weeks. RESULTS: Renal function of GN rats deteriorated very slowly but progressively, as assessed by the increase of serum creatinine concentration. At sacrifice, serum PTH levels, bone formation markers, bone resorption markers, and fibrosis volume were significantly elevated in vehicle-treated GN rats compared with those of sham-operated rats, suggesting the development of high-turnover bone disease with osteitis fibrosa. In contrast, in the GN-OCT 0.15 microg/kg group, these high PTH levels and high-turnover bone and fibrosis were significantly decreased. Such amelioration of bone abnormalities by OCT was not accompanied by either hypercalcemia or further deterioration of renal function. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that OCT may be a useful and safe agent not only for the suppression of PTH, but also for the amelioration of osteitis fibrosa and high-turnover bone without causing hypercalcemia in chronic dialysis patients. (+info)
Antibody responses in patients with staphylococcal septicemia against two Staphylococcus aureus fibrinogen binding proteins: clumping factor and an extracellular fibrinogen binding protein.
We analyzed the serum antibody responses against two Staphylococcus aureus fibrinogen binding proteins, the cell-bound clumping factor (Clf) and an extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb). The material consisted of 105 consecutive serum samples from 41 patients suffering from S. aureus septicemia and 72 serum samples from healthy individuals. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Healthy individuals showed variable levels of antibodies against the studied antigens, and cutoff levels (upper 95th percentile) against these antigens were determined. No correlation was seen between serum antibody levels against Clf and Efb. In acute-phase samples 27% of patients showed positive antibody levels against Clf and 10% showed positive levels against Efb, while in convalescent-phase samples 63% (26 of 41) showed a positive serology against Clf and 49% (20 of 41) showed a positive serology against Efb. Antibody levels against Efb were significantly lower in the acute-phase sera than in sera from healthy individuals (P = 0. 002). An antibody response against Clf was most frequent in patients suffering from osteitis plus septic arthritis and from endocarditis (80% positive). The antibody response against Efb appeared to develop later in the course of disease. A possible biological effect of measured antibodies was demonstrated with the help of an inhibition ELISA, in which both high-titer and low-titer sera inhibited the binding of bacteria to fibrinogen. In conclusion, we have demonstrated in vivo production of S. aureus fibrinogen binding proteins during deep S. aureus infections and a possible diagnostic and prophylactic role of the corresponding serum antibodies in such infections. (+info)
Evolution of chronic recurrent multifocal osteitis toward spondylarthropathy over the long term.
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively assess, with a sufficiently long followup (mean 11.6 years; median 9 years), the long-term outcome of chronic recurrent multifocal osteitis (CRMO), a multifocal, inflammatory bone disease. METHODS: Patients included were 8 children/adolescents and 7 adults with no family history of rheumatic disease who had been diagnosed as having CRMO between 1979 and 1995. Ten patients had undergone at least 1 bone biopsy of the lesions, with histologic examination and multiple cultures. In 1996, in addition to an in-depth interview, 12 patients underwent an extensive physical examination, laboratory evaluation, HLA-A, B, C, and DR typing, bone radiography and scintigraphy, and computed tomography scan of the sternoclavicular and sacroiliac joints. RESULTS: Remission was observed in 3 patients. The other 12 patients developed various associations of vertebral (n = 10), sacroiliac (n = 6), anterior thoracic (n = 7), peripheral articular (n = 2), enthesopathic (n = 4), or dermatologic (palmoplantar pustulosis in 3 cases and psoriasis in 2) involvements. Spine involvement was the most common and occurred the earliest (median time to appearance after the onset of osteitis 5.63 years). Clinical sacroiliitis was always unilateral. No patients carried the HLA-B27 haplotype. CRMO responded well to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Twelve patients met the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group criteria for spondylarthopathy. CONCLUSION: After 10 years, CRMO had usually evolved to spondylarthropathy, but with certain features not usually seen in the latter: predominantly, unilateral sacroiliitis, no familial form, and no link with HLA-B27. (+info)
Growth factors in distraction osteogenesis. Immuno-histological pattern of TGF-beta1 and IGF-I in human callus induced by distraction osteogenesis.
Although growth factors have been demonstrated during bone healing, their presence has not yet been confirmed in callus distraction. Therefore, in 3 patients we searched for cytokines during callus distraction. Bone biopsies were immuno-histochemically stained for TGF-beta1, IGF-I, TGF-beta type II receptor, IGF receptor, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Histologically we found immature woven bone in the middle of the callus zone and increasing calcification and lamellar bone in the re-modelling zone. Osteoblasts and fibroblast-like cells in the middle zone, and osteoblasts in all zones stained for TGF-beta and its receptor. The number of positive staining cells related to proliferous activity as assessed both by PCNA, and by bone density in radiographs. IGF-I could be detected everywhere. In conclusion, growth factors are present in bone formation and in areas of re-modelling during callotasis. Their relation to proliferous activity and radiographic density supports their involvement in osteogenesis. (+info)
Further studies of canine von Willebrand's disease.
Additional characterization of von Willebrand's disease (VWD) in a family of German shepherd dogs is presented. Genetic studies of three generations of affected dogs indicate that about 50% of the progeny are affected if one parent has VWD and about 60% if both parents have the defect. Some of these progeny manifested an incomplete form of VWD, suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expressivity. The disease become progressively less severe with advancing age and repeated pregnancies. Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in VWD dogs as compared with normal, thrombopathic, and hemophilic carrier dogs. Immunodiffusion and electroimmunodiffusion studies with rabbit anticanine factor VII showed the level of factor VII-related antigen to be low in VWD dogs but present in increased amounts in hemophilic dogs. VWD affected dogs had markedly delayed hemostatic plug formation, but their plugs appeared normal by light and electron microscopy. Their platelet nucleotides, ATP/ADP ration, and platelet protein content were normal. Platelet and fibrinogen survival times with [75Se] selenomethionine were also normal, although platelets from VWD dogs incorporated more radioactivity than did those from normal dogs or from dogs with incomplete VWD. (+info)
A case report of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis syndrome presenting with spondylodiscitis.
SAPHO syndrome stands for synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis. The common site of skeletal lesions in this syndrome is the sternocostoclavicular area. Spondylodiscitis is rarely described in published studies. In general, skin lesions develop before the onset of skeletal lesions. We report a case of SAPHO syndrome in which spondylodiscitis developed more than 1 year before the onset of pustulosis. (+info)
Incidence of pubic bone marrow oedema in Australian rules football players: relation to groin pain.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation between the clinical features of groin pain and groin magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances in a group largely comprising elite Australian Rules football players. The incidence of bone marrow oedema and other MRI findings in the pubic symphysis region was noted. The relation between a past history of groin pain and these other MRI findings was also examined. METHOD: In a prospective study, 116 male subjects (89 footballers, 17 umpires, 10 sedentary men) were examined before history taking and groin MRI. The clinical history was not known to the examiner (GMV) and radiologists (JPS, GTF). Clinical evidence of groin pain and examination findings were correlated with the presence of increased signal intensity within the pubic bone marrow. A past history of groin pain was correlated with the presence of other MRI findings such as cyst formation, fluid signal within the pubic symphysis disc, and irregularity of the pubic symphysis. RESULTS: Fifty two athletes (47 footballers, five umpires) had clinical features of groin pain with pubic symphysis and/or superior pubic ramus tenderness. A high incidence of increased signal intensity (77%) within the pubic bone marrow was identified in this group. There was an association between this group of athletes and the MRI finding of increased signal intensity (p<0.01). There was also an association between a past history of groin pain and the presence of other MRI findings (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Athletes with groin pain and tenderness of the pubic symphysis and/or superior pubic ramus have clinical features consistent with the diagnosis of osteitis pubis. The increased signal intensity seen on MRI is due to pubic bone marrow oedema. An association exists between the clinical features of osteitis pubis and the MRI finding of pubic bone marrow oedema. A high incidence of pubic bone marrow oedema was also noted. Degenerative features visualised by MRI, such as subchondral cyst formation, were associated with a past history of groin pain. A stress injury to the pubic bone is the most likely explanation for these MRI findings and may be the cause of the clinical entity osteitis pubis. (+info)
An unusual manifestation of acquired syphilis.
Bone involvement is an unusual manifestation of acquired syphilis. We report a case of clinically apparent osteitis of the skull, secondary to acquired syphilis, which was the patient's presentation of human immunodeficiency virus infection. (+info)