Hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems. Histology and histomorphometry around five components retrieved at post mortem.
We performed a histological and histomorphometric examination in five cadaver specimens of the femoral and acetabular components and the associated tissue which had been recovered between 3.3 and 6.2 years after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a proximal hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium alloy implant. All had functioned well during the patients' life. All the stems were fixed in the femur and showed osseointegration of both the proximal and distal parts. The amount of residual HA was greatest in the distal metaphyseal sections, indicating that the rate of bone remodelling may be the main factor causing loss of HA. The level of activity of the patient was the only clinical factor which correlated with loss of coating. The percentage of bone-implant osseointegration was almost constant, regardless of the amount of HA residue, periprosthetic bone density or the time of implantation. HA debris was seldom observed and if present did not cause any adverse or inflammatory reaction. Partial debonding did occur in one case as a result of a polyethylene-induced inflammatory reaction. (+info)
Coating titanium implants with bioglass and with hydroxyapatite. A comparative study in sheep.
This study compares the osteointegration of titanium implants coated with bioglass (Biovetro GSB formula) and with hydroxyapatite (HAP). Twenty-four bioglass-coated and 24 HAP-coated cylinders were implanted in the femoral diaphyses of sheep, and examined after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The HAP coating gave a stronger and earlier fixation to the bone than did bioglass. Bioglass formed a tissue interface which showed a macrophage reaction with little new bone formation activity. In contrast, HPA, showed intense new bone formation, with highly mineralised osseous trabeculae in the neighbourhood of the interface. (+info)
Xenogenic demineralized bone matrix: osteoinduction and influence of associated skeletal defects in heterotopic bone formation in rats.
Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was ectopically implanted in 36 male Wistar rats. In 18 of the animals a bone defect in the femoral condyles was also created: the left was filled with DBM and the right was left empty as a control. The animals were killed after 2, 4 and 6 weeks and new bone was histologically evaluated, comparing ectopic bone formation with or without distant bone injury. Results showed: (1) osteoinductivity of xenogenic DBM, and (2) earlier mineralization of ectopically implanted DBM in the group with associated skeletal injury. Our results show that xenogenic bone matrix acts as an osteoinductive material and that skeletal injury improves osteogenesis at distant sites. (+info)
Characteristics of bone ingrowth and interface mechanics of a new porous tantalum biomaterial.
We have studied the characteristics of bone ingrowth of a new porous tantalum biomaterial in a simple transcortical canine model using cylindrical implants 5 x 10 mm in size. The material was 75% to 80% porous by volume and had a repeating arrangement of slender interconnecting struts which formed a regular array of dodecahedron-shaped pores. We performed histological studies on two types of material, one with a smaller pore size averaging 430 microm at 4, 16 and 52 weeks and the other with a larger pore size averaging 650 microm at 2, 3, 4, 16 and 52 weeks. Mechanical push-out tests at 4 and 16 weeks were used to assess the shear strength of the bone-implant interface on implants of the smaller pore size. The extent of filling of the pores of the tantalum material with new bone increased from 13% at two weeks to between 42% and 53% at four weeks. By 16 and 52 weeks the average extent of bone ingrowth ranged from 63% to 80%. The tissue response to the small and large pore sizes was similar, with regions of contact between bone and implant increasing with time and with evidence of Haversian remodelling within the pores at later periods. Mechanical tests at four weeks indicated a minimum shear fixation strength of 18.5 MPa, substantially higher than has been obtained with other porous materials with less volumetric porosity. This porous tantalum biomaterial has desirable characteristics for bone ingrowth; further studies are warranted to ascertain its potential for clinical reconstructive orthopaedics. (+info)
Effects of TGFbeta on bone ingrowth in the presence of polyethylene particles.
We implanted bone harvest chambers (BHCs) bilaterally in ten mature male New Zealand white rabbits. Polyethylene particles (0.3+/-0.1 microm in diameter, 6.4 x 10(12) particles/ml) were implanted for two, four or six weeks bilaterally in the BHCs, with subsequent removal of the ingrown tissue after each treatment. In addition to the particles, one side also received 1.5 microg of recombinant transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1). At two weeks, the bone area as a percentage of total area was less in chambers containing TGFbeta compared with those with particles alone (7.8+/-1.3% v 16.9+/-2.7% respectively; 95% confidence interval (CI) for difference -14.0 to -4.30; p = 0.002). At four weeks, the percentage area of bone was greater in chambers containing TGFbeta compared with those with particles alone (31.2+/-3.4% v 22.5+/-2.0% respectively; 95% CI for difference 1.0 to 16.4; p = 0.03). There were no statistical differences at six weeks, despite a higher mean value with TGFbeta treatment (38.2+/-3.9% v 28.8 +/-3.5%; 95% CI for difference -4.6 to 23.3; p = 0.16). The number of vitronectin-receptor-positive cells (osteoclast-like cells) was greater in the treatment group with TGFbeta compared with that with particles alone; most of these positive cells were located in the interstitium, rather than adjacent to bone. TGFbeta1 is a pleotropic growth factor which can modulate cellular events in the musculoskeletal system in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Our data suggest that there is an early window at between two and six weeks, in which TGFbeta may favourably affect bone ingrowth in the BHC model. Exogenous growth factors such as TGFbeta may be a useful adjunct in obtaining osseointegration and bone ingrowth, especially in revisions when there is compromised bone stock and residual particulate debris. (+info)
Influence of extracorporeal irradiation on the reintegration of autologous grafts of bone and joint. Study in a canine model.
We studied the effects of irradiation on the reintegration of autologous osteoarticular grafts over a period of 24 weeks in a canine model. In 16 foxhounds the medial femoral condyle was resected, irradiated and immediately replanted. In the control group resection and replantation were performed without irradiation. Reintegration was assessed by macroscopic analysis, histology, radiography and gait analysis. Reintegration was equal at 12 weeks, but significantly inferior in the irradiated group after 24 weeks with delayed bone remodelling. The articular cartilage showed modest degeneration. Conventional radiography and histology showed corresponding changes. Limb function was adequate but the gait was inferior in the treated group. (+info)
Osseointegration of Ti6Al4V alloy implants coated with titanium nitride by a new method.
Coating titanium alloy implants with titanium nitride (TiN) by the method of Powder Immersion Reaction Assisted Coating (PIRAC) produces a stable layer on their surface. We have examined the ability of the new TiN coating to undergo osseointegration. We implanted TiN-coated and uncoated Ti6Al4V alloy pins into the femora of six-month-old female Wistar rats. SEM after two months showed a bone collar around both TiN-coated and uncoated implants. Morphometrical analysis revealed no significant differences between the percentage of the implant-bone contact and the area and volume of the bone around TiN-coated compared with uncoated implants. Electron-probe microanalysis indicated the presence of calcium and phosphorus at the implant-bone interface. Mineralisation around the implants was also confirmed by labelling with oxytetracycline. Strong activity of alkaline phosphatase and weak activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were shown histochemically. Very few macrophages were detected by the non-specific esterase reaction at the site of implantation. Our findings indicate good biocompatibility and bone-bonding properties of the new PIRAC TiN coatings which are comparable to those of uncoated Ti6Al4V alloy implants. (+info)
The fixation of the cemented femoral component. Effects of stem stiffness, cement thickness and roughness of the cement-bone surface.
After cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) there may be failure at either the cement-stem or the cement-bone interface. This results from the occurrence of abnormally high shear and compressive stresses within the cement and excessive relative micromovement. We therefore evaluated micromovement and stress at the cement-bone and cement-stem interfaces for a titanium and a chromium-cobalt stem. The behaviour of both implants was similar and no substantial differences were found in the size and distribution of micromovement on either interface with respect to the stiffness of the stem. Micromovement was minimal with a cement mantle 3 to 4 mm thick but then increased with greater thickness of the cement. Abnormally high micromovement occurred when the cement was thinner than 2 mm and the stem was made of titanium. The relative decrease in surface roughness augmented slipping but decreased debonding at the cement-bone interface. Shear stress at this site did not vary significantly for the different coefficients of cement-bone friction while compressive and hoop stresses within the cement increased slightly. (+info)