Purification and characterization of a mitochondrial thymine glycol endonuclease from rat liver.
Mitochondrial DNA is exposed to oxygen radicals produced during oxidative phosphorylation. Accumulation of several kinds of oxidative lesions in mitochondrial DNA may lead to structural genomic alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction, and associated degenerative diseases. The pyrimidine hydrate thymine glycol, one of many oxidative lesions, can block DNA and RNA polymerases and thereby exert negative biological effects. Mitochondrial DNA repair of this lesion is important to ensure normal mitochondrial DNA metabolism. Here, we report the purification of a novel rat liver mitochondrial thymine glycol endonuclease (mtTGendo). By using a radiolabeled oligonucleotide duplex containing a single thymine glycol lesion, damage-specific incision at the modified thymine was observed upon incubation with mitochondrial protein extracts. After purification using cation exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography, the most pure active fractions contained a single band of approximately 37 kDa on a silver-stained gel. MtTGendo is active within a broad KCl concentration range and is EDTA-resistant. Furthermore, mtTGendo has an associated apurinic/apyrimidinic-lyase activity. MtTGendo does not incise 8-oxodeoxyguanosine or uracil-containing duplexes or thymine glycol in single-stranded DNA. Based upon functional similarity, we conclude that mtTGendo may be a rat mitochondrial homolog of the Escherichia coli endonuclease III protein. (+info
Nucleoid-independent identification of cell division sites in Escherichia coli.
The mechanism used by Escherichia coli to determine the correct site for cell division is unknown. In this report, we have attempted to distinguish between a model in which septal position is determined by the position of the nucleoids and a model in which septal position is predetermined by a mechanism that does not involve nucleoid position. To do this, filaments with extended nucleoid-free regions adjacent to the cell poles were produced by simultaneous inactivation of cell division and DNA replication. The positions of septa that formed within the nucleoid-free zones after division was allowed to resume were then analyzed. The results showed that septa were formed at a uniform distance from cell poles when division was restored, with no relation to the distance from the nearest nucleoid. In some cells, septa were formed directly over nucleoids. These results are inconsistent with models that invoke nucleoid positioning as the mechanism for determining the site of division site formation. (+info
Reactivity of potassium permanganate and tetraethylammonium chloride with mismatched bases and a simple mutation detection protocol.
Many mutation detection techniques rely upon recognition of mismatched base pairs in DNA hetero-duplexes. Potassium permanganate in combination with tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) is capable of chemically modifying mismatched thymidine residues. The DNA strand can then be cleaved at that point by treatment with piperidine. The reactivity of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in TEAC toward mismatches was investigated in 29 different mutations, representing 58 mismatched base pairs and 116 mismatched bases. All mismatched thymidine residues were modified by KMnO4/TEAC with the majority of these showing strong reactivity. KMnO4/TEAC was also able to modify many mismatched guanosine and cytidine residues, as well as matched guanosine, cytidine and thymidine residues adjacent to, or nearby, mismatched base pairs. Previous techniques using osmium tetroxide (OsO4) to modify mismatched thymidine residues have been limited by the apparent lack of reactivity of a third of all T/G mismatches. KMnO4/TEAC showed no such phenomenon. In this series, all 29 mutations were detected by KMnO4/TEAC treatment. The latest development of the Single Tube Chemical Cleavage of Mismatch Method detects both thymidine and cytidine mismatches by KMnO4/TEAC and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) in a single tube without a clean-up step in between the two reactions. This technique saves time and material without disrupting the sensitivity and efficiency of either reaction. (+info
Repair of oxidative DNA base lesions induced by fluorescent light is defective in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells.
Fluorescent light (FL) has been shown to generate free radicals within cells, however, the specific chemical nature of DNA damage induced by FL has not previously been determined. Using gas chromatography/isotope dilution mass spectrometry, we have detected induction of the oxidative DNA lesions 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OH-Cyt), 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua) and 4, 6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyAde) in cultured cells irradiated with FL. We followed the repair of these lesions in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XP-A) cells. 5-OH-Cyt and FapyGua were repaired efficiently in normal cells within 6 h following FL exposure. XP-A cells were unable to repair these oxidative DNA base lesions. Additionally, to compare the repair of oxidative lesions induced by various sources, in vitro repair studies were performed using plasmid DNA damaged by FL, gamma-irradiation or OsO(4)treatment. Whole cell extracts from normal cells repaired damaged substrates efficiently, whereas there was little repair in XP-A extracts. Our data demon-strate defective repair of oxidative DNA base lesions in XP-A cells in vivo and in vitro. (+info
Characteristic intraepidermal nerve fibre endings of the intervibrissal fur in the mystacial pad of the rat: morphological details revealed by intravital methylene blue staining and the zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide technique.
Light microscopic observations employing intravital methylene blue staining and impregnation by the zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide technique are presented for intraepidermal nerve fibre endings of the intervibrissal fur in the mystacial pad of the rat snout. Both procedures revealed anatomical details of the intraepidermal nerve fibre plexus in epidermal hillocks often located very close to the mouths of hairs. These nerve fibres appeared to resemble those described in previous immunohistochemical studies as cluster or bush endings. The methylene blue preparations demonstrated the existence of an intensely stained enlargement at the site of the branching point of the nerve fibres which seemed to be functionally related to the development of such nerve fibre plexuses. Due to their close association with hairs, these nerve fibre plexuses are most likely to be mechanoreceptive. Additionally, solitary varicose nerve fibres were found loosely distributed within the epidermis. The visualisation of 2 different morphological types of nerve fibre endings extends the validity of the concept of punctate sensibility into the epidermis. Methylene blue staining appeared to be somewhat superior to the zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide technique. Due to their selectivity for intraepidermal nerve fibres, the methods applied here supplement immunohistochemical procedures in a helpful manner. (+info
Spontaneous and osmium tetroxide-induced mutagenesis in an Escherichia coli strain deficient in both endonuclease III and endonuclease VIII.
Thymine glycol, uracil glycol, 5-hydroxycytosine and 5-hydroxyuracil are common base lesions produced by cellular metabolism as well as ionizing radiation and environmental carcinogens. Escherichia coli DNA glycosylase, endonuclease III and endonuclease VIII recognize and remove these lesions from DNA. In this study, we assessed the mutagenic potential of these lesions in the supF gene as a forward mutation target in double-stranded plasmid DNA using an E.coli strain deficient in both endonuclease III and endonuclease VIII. These lesions were introduced into pTN89 DNA by the chemical oxidant osmium tetroxide. Spontaneous supF mutations occurred at a frequency of 3.03x10(-7) and osmium tetroxide-induced at a frequency of 8. 25x10(-7). Sequence analysis of supF mutants revealed that mutations occurred at cytosine sites rather than thymine sites, suggesting that thymine glycol is not the principal premutagenic lesion. In contrast, G:C-->A:T transitions were dominantly detected in the spontaneous and osmium tetroxide-induced mutations in the endonuclease III and endonuclease VIII double defective host. In this case, products of cytosine oxidation such as 5-hydroxycytosine, which are the substrate for endonuclease III and endonuclease VIII, were the principal mutagenic lesions. (+info
A "microtubule" in a bacterium.
A study of the anchorage of the flagella in swarmers of Proteus mirabilis led to the incidental observation of microtubules. These microtubules were found in thin sections and in whole mount preparations of cells from which most of the content had been released by osmotic shock before staining negatively with potassium phosphotungstate (PTA). The microtubules are in negatively stained preparations about 200 A wide, i.e. somewhat thicker than the flagella (approximately 130 A). They are thus somewhat thinner than most microtubules recorded for other cells. They are referred to as microtubules because of their smooth cylindrical wall, or cortex, surrounding a hollow core which is readily filled with PTA when stained negatively. Since this is probably the first time that such a structure is described inside a bacterium, we do not know for certain whether it represents a normal cell constituent or an abnormality, for instance of the type of "polysheaths" (16). (+info
Cytodifferentiation during spermiogenesis in Lumbricus terrestris.
The structural changes during spermiogenesis were studied on developing spermatids in seminal vesicles and receptacles of Lumbricus terrestris fixed in glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide and embedded in Epon-Araldite. The centriole plays a prominent role in the morphogenesis and organization of the microtubules of the manchette and flagellum. Microtubules arising from the centriole extend anteriorly to encase the developing middle piece, the nucleus, and the acrosome. The manchette not only provides a supporting framework for the cell during elongation, but also may provide the motive force for the elimination of both nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The manchette participates in segregation and elimination of the nuclear vesicle that contains the nonchromatin nucleoplasm. Compartmentalization and conservation may also be a function of the manchette since those elements which remain within the framework of microtubules are retained, while all the cytoplasm outside the manchette is discarded. At maturation, the endoplasmic reticulum plays a key role in dismantling the manchette and reducing the cytoplasm external to it. During the early stages of middle-piece formation, six ovoid mitochondria aggregate at the posterior pole of the spermatid nucleus. Concurrent with manchette formation, the mitochondria are compressed laterally into elongate wedge-shaped components, and their outer limiting membranes fuse to form an hexagonal framework that surrounds the dense intramitochondrial matrices. Dense glycogen granules are arranged linearly between the peripheral flagellar tubules and the outer membrane of the mature sperm tail. (+info