(1/1280) Nonlinear indicial response of complex nonstationary oscillations as pulmonary hypertension responding to step hypoxia.
This paper is devoted to the quantization of the degree of nonlinearity of the relationship between two biological variables when one of the variables is a complex nonstationary oscillatory signal. An example of the situation is the indicial responses of pulmonary blood pressure (P) to step changes of oxygen tension (DeltapO2) in the breathing gas. For a step change of DeltapO2 beginning at time t1, the pulmonary blood pressure is a nonlinear function of time and DeltapO2, which can be written as P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). An effective method does not exist to examine the nonlinear function P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). A systematic approach is proposed here. The definitions of mean trends and oscillations about the means are the keys. With these keys a practical method of calculation is devised. We fit the mean trends of blood pressure with analytic functions of time, whose nonlinearity with respect to the oxygen level is clarified here. The associated oscillations about the mean can be transformed into Hilbert spectrum. An integration of the square of the Hilbert spectrum over frequency yields a measure of oscillatory energy, which is also a function of time, whose mean trends can be expressed by analytic functions. The degree of nonlinearity of the oscillatory energy with respect to the oxygen level also is clarified here. Theoretical extension of the experimental nonlinear indicial functions to arbitrary history of hypoxia is proposed. Application of the results to tissue remodeling and tissue engineering of blood vessels is discussed. (+info)
(2/1280) Common 3 and 10 Hz oscillations modulate human eye and finger movements while they simultaneously track a visual target.
1. A 10 Hz range centrally originating oscillation has been found to modulate slow finger movements and anticipatory smooth eye movements. To determine if an interaction or linkage occurs between these two central oscillations during combined visuo-manual tracking, frequency and coherence analysis were performed on finger and eye movements while they simultaneously tracked a visual target moving in intermittently visible sinusoidal patterns. 2. Two different frequencies of common or linked oscillation were found. The first, at 2-3 Hz, was dependent on visual feedback of target and finger tracking positions. The second, at around 10 Hz, still occurred when both target and finger positions were largely obscured, indicating that this common oscillation was generated internally by the motor system independent of visual feedback. Both 3 and 10 Hz oscillation frequencies were also shared by the right and left fingers if subjects used these together to track a visual target. 3. The linking of the 10 Hz range oscillations between the eyes and finger was task specific; it never occurred when eye and finger movements were made simultaneously and independently, but only when they moved simultaneously and followed the target together. However, although specific for tracking by the eyes and fingers together, the linking behaviour did not appear to be a prerequisite for such tracking, since significant coherence in the 10 Hz range was only present in a proportion of trials where these combined movements were made. 4. The experiments show that common oscillations may modulate anatomically very distinct structures, indicating that single central oscillations may have a widespread distribution in the central nervous system. The task-specific manifestation of the common oscillation in the eye and finger suggests that such mechanisms may have a functional role in hand-eye co-ordination. (+info)
(3/1280) Voltage-dependent entry and generation of slow Ca2+ oscillations in glucose-stimulated pancreatic beta-cells.
The role of voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry for glucose generation of slow oscillations of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was evaluated in individual mouse pancreatic beta-cells. Like depolarization with K+, a rise of the glucose concentration resulted in an enhanced influx of Mn2+, which was inhibited by nifedipine. This antagonist of L-type Ca2+ channels also blocked the slow oscillations of [Ca2+]i induced by glucose. The slow oscillations occurred in synchrony with variations in Mn2+ influx and bursts of action currents, with the elevation of [Ca2+]i being proportional to the frequency of the action currents. A similar relationship was obtained when Ca2+ was replaced with Sr2+. Occasionally, the slow [Ca2+]i oscillations were superimposed with pronounced spikes temporarily arresting the action currents. It is concluded that the glucose-induced slow oscillations of [Ca2+]i are caused by periodic depolarization with Ca2+ influx through L-type channels. Ca2+ spiking, due to intracellular mobilization, may be important for chopping the slow oscillations of [Ca2+]i into shorter ones characterizing beta-cells situated in pancreatic islets. (+info)
(4/1280) Diazepam-binding inhibitor33-50 elicits Ca2+ oscillation and CCK secretion in STC-1 cells via L-type Ca2+ channels.
We recently isolated and characterized 86-amino acid CCK-releasing peptide from porcine intestinal mucosa. The sequence of this peptide is identical to that of porcine diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI). Intraduodenal administration of DBI stimulates the CCK release and elicits pancreatic secretion in rats. In this study we utilized a murine tumor cell line (STC-1 cells) that contains CCK to examine if DBI directly acts on these cells to stimulate CCK release. We investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for this action. We showed that DBI33-50, a biologically active fragment of DBI1-86, significantly stimulated CCK secretion in STC-1 cells. This action was abolished by Ca2+-free medium. The mean basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was 52 nM in fura 2-loaded STC-1 cells. DBI33-50 (1-1,000 nM) elicited Ca2+ oscillations; DBI33-50 (10 nM) increased the oscillation frequency to 5 cycles/10 min and elicited a net [Ca2+]i increase (peak - basal) to 157 nM. In contrast, bombesin and forskolin caused an initial transient [Ca2+]i followed by a small sustained [Ca2+]i plateau. Withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+ abolished Ca2+ oscillations stimulated by DBI33-50. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and diltiazem (3-10 microM) markedly attenuated DBI-stimulated Ca2+ oscillations. In other cell types L-type Ca2+ channels are activated by cAMP-protein kinase A. DBI33-50 failed to stimulate cAMP formation in STC-1 cells. Similarly, DBI33-50 had no effect on myo-inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate concentration ([IP3]), whereas bombesin caused an eightfold increase in [IP3] over basal. In addition, inhibitors of phospholipase C (U-73122), phospholipase A2 (ONO-RS-082), and protein tyrosine kinase (genistein) did not alter the Ca2+ oscillations elicited by DBI33-50. It appears that DBI33-50 acts directly on STC-1 cells to elicit Ca2+ oscillations via the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, resulting in the secretion of CCK. Mediation of this action is by intracellular mechanisms independent of the traditional signal transduction pathways, including phospholipase C, phospholipase A2, protein tyrosine kinase, and cAMP systems. (+info)
(5/1280) Tonic and phasic influences of nitric oxide on renal blood flow autoregulation in conscious dogs.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the mean level and phasic modulation of NO on the dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF). Transfer functions were calculated from spontaneous fluctuations of RBF and arterial pressure (AP) in conscious resting dogs for 2 h under control conditions, after NO synthase (NOS) inhibition [NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME)] and after L-NAME followed by a continuous infusion of an NO donor [S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP)]. After L-NAME (n = 7) AP was elevated, heart rate (HR) and RBF were reduced. The gain of the transfer function above 0.08 Hz was increased, compatible with enhanced resonance of the myogenic response. A peak of high gain around 0.03 Hz, reflecting oscillations of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), was not affected. The gain below 0.01 Hz, was elevated, but still less than 0 dB, indicating diminished but not abolished autoregulation. After L-NAME and SNAP (n = 5), mean AP and RBF were not changed, but HR was slightly elevated. The gain above 0.08 Hz and the peak of high gain at 0.03 Hz were not affected. The gain below 0.01 Hz was elevated, but smaller than 0 dB. It is concluded that NO may help to prevent resonance of the myogenic response depending on the mean level of NO. The feedback oscillations of the TGF are not affected by NO. NO contributes to the autoregulation below 0.01 Hz due to phasic modulation independent of its mean level. (+info)
(6/1280) Synchronization of local neural networks in the somatosensory cortex: A comparison of stationary and moving stimuli.
Spontaneous and stimulus-induced responses were recorded from neighboring groups of neurons by an array of electrodes in the primary (SI) somatosensory cortex of intact, halothane-anesthetized cats. Cross-correlation analysis was used to characterize the coordination of spontaneous activity and the responses to peripheral stimulation with moving or stationary air jets. Although synchronization was detected in only 10% (88 of 880) of the pairs of single neurons that were recorded, cross-correlation analysis of multiunit responses revealed significant levels of synchronization in 64% of the 123 recorded electrode pairs. Compared with spontaneous activity, both stationary and moving air jets caused substantial increases in the rate, proportion, and temporal precision of synchronized activity in local regions of SI cortex. Among populations of neurons that were synchronized by both types of air-jet stimulation, the mean rate of synchronized activity was significantly higher during moving air-jet stimulation than during stationary air-jet stimulation. Moving air jets also produced significantly higher correlation coefficients than stationary air jets in the raw cross-correlograms (CCGs) but not in the shift-corrected CCGs. The incidence and rate of stimulus-induced synchronization varied with the distance separating the recording sites. For sites separated by =300 microm, 80% of the multiunit responses displayed significant levels of synchronization during both types of air-jet stimulation. For sites separated by >/=500 microm, only 37% of the multiunit responses were synchronized by discrete stimulation with a single air jet. Measurements of the multiunit CCG peak half-widths showed that the correlated activity produced by moving air jets had slightly less temporal variability than that produced by stationary air jets. These results indicate that moving stimuli produce greater levels of synchronization than stationary stimuli among local groups of SI neurons and suggest that neuronal synchronization may supplement the changes in firing rate which code intensity and other attributes of a cutaneous stimulus. (+info)
(7/1280) Coherent oscillations in membrane potential synchronize impulse bursts in central olfactory neurons of the crayfish.
Lateral protocerebral interneurons (LPIs) in the central olfactory pathway of the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii reside within the lateral protocerebrum and receive direct input from projection neurons of the olfactory midbrain. The LPIs exhibit periodic (0.5 Hz) changes in membrane potential that are imposed on them synaptically. Acute surgical experiments indicate that the synaptic activity originates from a group of oscillatory neurons lying within the lateral protocerebrum. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from many LPI pairs indicate that this periodic synaptic input is synchronous and coherent among the population of approximately 200 LPIs on each side of the brain. In many LPIs, specific odors applied to antennules in isolated head preparations generate long-lasting excitatory postsynaptic potentials and impulse bursts. The impulse bursts are generated only near the peaks of the ongoing depolarizations, approximately 1 s after stimulus application, and so the periodic baseline activity is instrumental in timing burst generation. Simultaneous recordings from pairs of LPIs show that, when impulse bursts occur in both cells after an odorant stimulus, they are synchronized by the common periodic depolarizations. We conclude that the common, periodic activity in LPIs can synchronize impulse bursts in subsets of these neurons, possibly generating powerful long-lasting postsynaptic effects in downstream target neurons. (+info)
(8/1280) Bursting in inhibitory interneuronal networks: A role for gap-junctional coupling.
Much work now emphasizes the concept that interneuronal networks play critical roles in generating synchronized, oscillatory behavior. Experimental work has shown that functional inhibitory networks alone can produce synchronized activity, and theoretical work has demonstrated how synchrony could occur in mutually inhibitory networks. Even though gap junctions are known to exist between interneurons, their role is far from clear. We present a mechanism by which synchronized bursting can be produced in a minimal network of mutually inhibitory and gap-junctionally coupled neurons. The bursting relies on the presence of persistent sodium and slowly inactivating potassium currents in the individual neurons. Both GABAA inhibitory currents and gap-junctional coupling are required for stable bursting behavior to be obtained. Typically, the role of gap-junctional coupling is focused on synchronization mechanisms. However, these results suggest that a possible role of gap-junctional coupling may lie in the generation and stabilization of bursting oscillatory behavior. (+info)