Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation for the treatment of severe scoliosis.
In a multicentric study, 36 cases (40 curves) of severe scoliosis were analysed; 19 were idiopathic and 17 neurological, Cobb angles ranged from 70 degrees to 145 degrees, all had undergone three-rod Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) instrumentation. The correction on the frontal plane achieved more than 50% of the preoperative angle (53.9% for idiopathic curves and 55.6% for neurological ones). On the sagittal plane the pathological shape of the spine was reduced and distinctly ameliorated. In ten patients, the authors successfully applied a technique, alternative to the original one, which was based on the use of two or three screws in the lumbar area, one supplementary pedicle transverse claw on the cranial area and two rods connected by a domino, instead of a single rod (the longer one applied on the concave side). The main complications were: one case of infection, three of vascular compression of the duodenum, one of crank-shaft phenomenon and one laminar hook displacement. The excellent result achieved in both, idiopathic and neurological severe and stiff scoliosis shows the efficacy, reliability and versatility of CD three-rod instrumentation. (+info)
Long-term three-dimensional changes of the spine after posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
This is a prospective study comparing the short- and long-term three-dimensional (3D) changes in shape, length and balance of the spine after spinal instrumentation and fusion in a group of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the stability over time of the postoperative changes of the spine after instrumentation with multi rod, hook and screw instrumentation systems. Thirty adolescents (average age: 14.5+/-1.6 years) undergoing surgery by a posterior approach had computerized 3D reconstructions of the spine done at an average of 3 days preoperatively (stage I), and 2 months (stage II) and 2,5 years (stage III) after surgery, using a digital multi-planar radiographic technique. Stages I, II and III were compared using various geometrical parameters of spinal length, curve severity, and orientation. Significant improvement of curve magnitude between stages I and II was documented in the frontal plane for thoracic and lumbar curves, as well as in the orientation of the plane of maximum deformity, which was significantly shifted towards the sagittal plane in thoracic curves. However, there was a significant loss of this correction between stages II and III. Slight changes were noted in apical vertebral rotation, in thoracic kyphosis and in lumbar lordosis. Spinal length and height were significantly increased at stage II, but at long-term follow-up spinal length continued to increase while spinal height remained similar. These results indicate that although a significant 3D correction can be obtained after posterior instrumentation and fusion, a significant loss of correction and an increase in spinal length occur in the years following surgery, suggesting that a crankshaft phenomenon may be an important factor altering the long-term 3D correction after posterior instrumentation of the spine for idiopathic scoliosis. (+info)
Complications of scoliosis surgery in children with myelomeningocele.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether the high incidence of complications in scoliosis surgery in myelomeningocele (MMC) could be attributed to the surgical technique and whether improvements were possible. Between 1984 and 1996, 77 patients with MMC and scoliosis were treated surgically. The clinical and radiological follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years with a mean follow-up of 3.6 years. The mean age at time of surgery was 12 years 8 months. The average preoperative scoliosis measured 90.20 degrees and was corrected by 47%. The first four patients were stabilized with Harrington rods after anterior correction with a Zielke device (group 1). Twenty-five patients were operated only from posterior, using Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) instrumentation (group 2). In 13 patients an anterior release and discectomy was performed prior to CD posterior instrumentation (group 3). In 26 patients (group 4) this was combined with an anterior instrumentation. The 9 patients of group 5 had congenital vertebral malformations which made a special treatment necessary. Complications could be divided into hardware problems, such as implant failure, dislocation or pseudarthrosis, infections, anesthetic, and neurologic complications. Hardware problems were seen in 29% of all patients. More hardware problems were seen with the Harrington rod (75%) and after solitary posterior instrumentation (30%). The occurrence of pseudarthrosis was dependent on the surgical technique, the extent of posterior spondylodesis, and lumbosacral fusion. Patients with hardware problems had a mean loss of correction of 49% compared to 13% in the other patients. Depending on the different surgical techniques a loss of more than 30% was seen in 12-75% of the cases. Early postoperative shunt failure occurred in four cases; delayed failure - after more than 1 year - in three cases. One patient died within 1 day due to an acute hydrocephalus, another died after 2 1/2 years because of chronic shunt insufficiency with herniation. Wound problems were not dependent on the surgical technique, but on the extent of posterior spondylodesis and the lumbosacral fusion. Based on this analysis we believe our current practice of instrumented anterior and posterior fusion is justified. Further, we are very careful to check shunt function prior to acute correction of spinal deformity. (+info)
A new approach to scoliosis.
Despite the advantages that new derotation-based systems have brought to the treatment of scoliosis, the debate continues, especially regarding adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Problems like decompensation, junctional kyphosis, and insufficient sagittal plane alignment are met with new proposals. We now are using a technique and system, the Ibn-I Sina Spinal System (IBS), that we think is able to overcome these problems. It makes use of sublaminar wires, hooks, screws, and rods for correction. The main innovation is that the major corrective force is a controlled translation force acting simultaneously on all segments of the curve. A retrospective assessment of 25 patients treated with this system showed that besides dealing well with decompensation and junctional kyphosis problems, the technique was superior in sagittal plane adjustments, mainly in that it carried the normal kyphosis to its physiologic location. IBS has proved easy and successful in scoliosis treatment, especially with lordotic rigid curves. We encountered no neurologic injury or instrument failure. In addition to these advantages, ease of preoperative planning and application, decreased operation time, easy removal or revision, and versatility and safety of the system has made the Ibn-I Sina Spinal System (IBS) a treatment of choice, especially for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases, in some centers in Turkey. (+info)
Dorsal instrumentation for idiopathic adolescent thoracic scoliosis: rod rotation versus translation.
The radiographic and clinical outcomes and complications among two groups of adolescent patients treated for idiopathic thoracic scoliosis with dorsal instrumentation using a unified implantation system (Universal Spinal System) were compared retrospectively. A total of 69 patients were included in the study. In 30 patients an intraoperative correction of the scoliosis was performed by translation and segmental correction (translation group, Helsinki). In 39 patients the correction was achieved according to the Cotrel-Dubousset rod rotation maneuver (rod rotation group, Berlin). The goal of the present study is to investigate whether one of the operative procedures leads to a better correction of idiopathic adolescent thoracic scoliosis than the other. The mean follow-up interval was 30 months, with a minimum of 12 months. There were no significant preoperative differences in age (15+/-2 years in both groups), gender, or type of scoliosis (King types 2, 3, and 4). The preoperative radiographic measurements showed no significant differences between the two groups. In both patient groups, the thoracic primary curve, the lumbar secondary curve and the thoracic apical rotation were improved by the operation. Lumbar apical rotation and the sagittal profile were unchanged in both groups. The thoracic primary curve was corrected from 50 degrees +/-6 degrees to 24 degrees +/-7 degrees in the translation group and from 54 degrees +/-11 degrees to 220 degrees +/-11 degrees in the rod rotation group. The extent of the correction of the thoracic curve was significantly greater in the rod rotation group than in the translation group (59% vs. 52% correction). In contrast, the translation procedure seems to have a more beneficial effect on spinal balance than rod rotation. Neurological complications did not occur. In both patient groups an increase in the non-instrumented lumbar curve was noted, in two cases each. In three patients from the rod rotation group the instrumentation had to be removed due to a late infection with negative microbiological results. (+info)
Operative treatment of unstable injuries of the cervicothoracic junction.
The authors present their experience in the operative treatment of unstable lesions at the cervicothoracic junction. Ten patients, six men and four women, underwent operative procedures at the cervicothoracic junction (C7-T1) between 1990 and 1997. Six patients had sustained fracture-dislocations, three patients had metastases and one patient had a primary malignant lesion. All the patients had significant cervical pain and neurologic deficit. The spinal cord and nerves were decompressed in all cases. Posterior stabilization was accomplished using various types of implants including hooks, wires and rods. Anteriorly, the spine was stabilized with plates and screws. Partial or complete vertebrectomy was performed in five cases and a titanium cylinder or an iliac autograft replaced the vertebral body. Five patients were submitted to a posterior operation only, and the other five to bilateral procedures. In four of these a one-stage operation was performed and in the last case a two-stage procedure. The anatomic and biomechanical characteristics of the cervicothoracic junction require a precise pre-operative analysis of the local anatomy and the selection of the proper implants for anterior and posterior stabilization. (+info)
Treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures without neurologic deficit by indirect reduction and posterior instrumentation: bisegmental stabilization with monosegmental fusion.
This study retrospectively reviews 20 sequential patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures without neurologic deficit. All patients were treated by indirect reduction, bisegmental posterior transpedicular instrumentation and monosegmental fusion. Clinical and radiological outcome was analyzed after an average follow-up of 6.4 years. Re-kyphosis of the entire segment including the cephaled disc was significant with loss of the entire postoperative correction over time. This did not influence the generally benign clinical outcome. Compared to its normal height the fused cephalad disc was reduced by 70% and the temporarily spanned caudal disc by 40%. Motion at the temporarily spanned segment could be detected in 11 patients at follow-up, with no relation to the clinical result. Posterior instrumentation of thoracolumbar burst fractures can initially reduce the segmental kyphosis completely. The loss of correction within the fractured vertebral body is small. However, disc space collapse leads to eventual complete loss of segmental reduction. Therefore, posterolateral fusion alone does not prevent disc space collapse. Nevertheless, clinical long-term results are favorable. However, if disc space collapse has to prevented, an interbody disc clearance and fusion is recommended. (+info)
Traumatic L5-S1 spondylolisthesis: report of three cases and a review of the literature.
The literature reports that traumatic spondylolisthesis of L5 is an uncommon lesion. The authors report their experience of three cases of this particular fracture-dislocation of the lumbosacral spine. They stress the importance of certain radiographic signs in the diagnosis: namely, the presence of unilateral multiple fracture of the transverse lumbar apophysis. As far as the treatment is concerned, they state the need for an open reduction and an internal segmental fixation by posterior approach. A preoperative MRI study appears mandatory in order to evaluate the integrity of the L5-S1 disc. In the event of a traumatic disruption of the disc, they state the importance of posterior interbody fusion by means of a strut graft carved from the ilium or, in case of iliac wing fracture (which is not uncommon in these patients), by means of interbody cages. (+info)