(1/252) Influence of archwire and bracket dimensions on sliding mechanics: derivations and determinations of the critical contact angles for binding.

There is every indication that classical friction controls sliding mechanics below some critical contact angle, theta c. Once that angle is exceeded, however, binding and notching phenomena increasingly restrict sliding mechanics. Using geometric archwire and bracket parameters, the theta c is calculated as the boundary between classical frictional behaviour and binding-related phenomena. What these equations predict is independent of practitioner or technique. From these derivations two dimensionless numbers are also identified as the bracket and the engagement index. The first shows how the width of a bracket compares to its Slot; the second indicates how completely the wire fills the Slot. When nominal wire and bracket dimensions are calculated for both standard Slots, the maximum theta c theoretically equals 3.7 degrees. Thus, knowledge of the archwire or bracket alone is insufficient; knowledge of the archwire-bracket combination is necessary for theta c to be calculated. Once calculated, sliding mechanics should be initiated only after the contact angle, theta, approaches the characteristic value of theta c for the particular archwire-bracket combination of choice--that is, when theta approximately theta c.  (+info)

(2/252) The effects of increasing the reverse curve of Spee in a lower archwire examined using a dynamic photo-elastic gelatine model.

This paper describes the development and testing of a dynamic in vitro photo-elastic model for evaluating the effects of orthodontic mechanics on an entire arch of teeth. A model of a mandibular arch was made and the teeth were embedded in a gelatine material with a high level of mechanical creep which permitted tooth movement in response to orthodontic forces. The excellent photo-elastic properties of this material also facilitated the analysis of the stress distribution around the roots of the teeth. The model of a mandibular arch was used to investigate the tooth movements and stress distributions produced by increasing the reverse curve of Spee in a 0.018 x 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire. The results revealed that a 1-mm reverse curve of Spee increased the arch length by 1.6 mm, but increasing the reverse curve of Spee to 5 mm did not increase arch length further. Photo-elastic analysis showed an increased stress distribution around the roots of the incisors and molars as the reverse curve of Spee was increased in the archwire.  (+info)

(3/252) Intra-oral temperature variation over 24 hours.

This study aimed to investigate temperature variation at archwire sites adjacent to the maxillary right central incisor and first premolar, its correlation with ambient temperature, and the influence of inter-racial variation. Twenty young adult male subjects were randomly selected (13 Asian, seven Caucasian). Thermocouples were attached to the labial archwire component of custom-made orthodontic retainers at the two intra-oral sites. A third thermocouple measured ambient temperature. A data-logger recorded temperatures at 5-second intervals over a 24-hour period. Temperatures ranged from 5.6 to 58.5 degrees C at the incisor and from 7.9 to 54 degrees C at the premolar, with medians of 34.9 degrees C and 35.6 degrees C, respectively. Ambient temperature correlated poorly with the intra-oral temperatures. The Asian and Caucasian groups had significantly different temperature distributions. On average during the 24-hour period, temperatures at the incisor site were in the range of 33-37 degrees C for 79 per cent of the time, below it for 20 per cent, and above it for only 1 per cent of the time. Corresponding figures for the premolar site were 92, 6, and 2 per cent. At both archwire sites the most frequent temperatures were in the range of 35-36 degrees C. The data presented demonstrate that the temperature at sites on an archwire in situ varies considerably over a 24-hour period and that racial differences may exist. This information should be considered during the manufacture and use of temperature-sensitive orthodontic materials, in particular nickel-titanium archwires and springs.  (+info)

(4/252) Distortion of metallic orthodontic brackets after clinical use and debond by two methods.

The objective of this paper was to compare distortion of the tie wings and bases of metallic orthodontic brackets following clinical use and after debond by either of two methods, and took the form of a prospective random control trial. Five-hundred-and-seven brackets were debonded using either bracket removing pliers or a lift off debonding instrument (LODI). By a system of random allocation contralateral opposing quadrants were debonded with a 0.019 x 0.025-inch archwire either in place or removed. After debond brackets were tested for slot closure by the fit of rectangular test wires from 0.016 x 0.022 to 0.021 x 0.025 inch in size. The LODI produced few slot closures sufficient to affect the fit of all but the largest test wire. Bracket removing pliers used after removal of the archwire produced significantly greater numbers of distorted brackets in response to testing with all but the largest wire. With the 0.021 x 0.025 inch wire in place the presence or absence of the archwire at the time of debond made no difference to the number of slot closures. Ten per cent of the brackets debonded using bracket removing pliers had distorted bases, no base damage was produced by the LODI. The use of bracket removing pliers at debond caused significantly more slot closures than use of the LODI. When bracket removing pliers are used the archwire should be left in place at the time of debond since this reduces the number of distortions.  (+info)

(5/252) Rapid palatal expansion in treatment of Class II malocclusions.

A technique which combines the use of rapid maxillary expansion and fixed appliance in growing patients, is presented. The treatment in three patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and different skeletal patterns is described, and relative advantages highlighted.  (+info)

(6/252) An ex-vivo investigation into the effect of bracket displacement on the resistance to sliding.

This ex-vivo study investigated the effect that repeated bracket displacement has on sliding friction and the magnitude of bracket displacement, and hence tooth movement, required to release bracket/archwire binding. The design consisted of an ex-vivo laboratory study. A jig was designed that allowed repeated displacement of a bracket to occur, while the resistance to sliding (friction) was measured using an Instron universal testing machine. One type of stainless steel bracket was used in conjunction with four archwire types (0.016-inch stainless steel, 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel, 0.021 x 0.025-inch stainless steel, 0.019 x 0.025-inch beta-titanium) and four magnitudes of displacement. Repeated bracket displacement has a significant effect on the sliding resistance at the bracket/archwire interface (P < 0.001). The reduction in sliding resistance noted with displacement depended on the archwire. Over the range of displacements tested, there was an 85 and 80 per cent reduction associated with 0.021 x 0.025-inch and 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel, respectively. For 0.019 x 0.025-inch beta-titanium and 0.016-inch stainless steel, these reductions were 27 and 19 per cent, respectively. The importance of true friction, given the likelihood of bracket and/or archwire displacements in vivo, may be lessened.  (+info)

(7/252) Effects on tooth movement of force delivery from nickel-titanium archwires.

The aim of this project was to determine the in vivo effects of tooth movement with nickel-titanium archwires on the periodontium during the early stages of orthodontic treatment. The extent of tooth movement, severity of gingival inflammation, pocket probing depth, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow, and the amount of the chondroitin sulphate (CS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the GCF of one maxillary canine in each of 33 patients treated with a pre-adjusted appliance were measured before and at four stages during the first 22 weeks of treatment. The methods involved the use of a reflex metrograph to determine the type of tooth movement and electrophoresis to quantitate the CS in the GCF. It was found that GCF flow increased after 4 weeks of tooth movement whereas the increase in the amount of CS in the GCF, which is taken to be indicative of periodontal tissue turnover, occurred at the later stage of 10 weeks. Teeth which showed the greatest amount of tooth movement continued to express large amounts of CS in large volumes of GCF until 22 weeks, whilst the CS levels in those teeth moving to a smaller extent declined. These data suggest that nickel-titanium archwires may produce a super-elastic plateau effect in vivo on canine teeth, which are initially displaced from the arch such that large amounts of tooth movement occur in the first 22 weeks of treatment.  (+info)

(8/252) An evaluation of the transition temperature range of super-elastic orthodontic NiTi springs using differential scanning calorimetry.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the transition temperature ranges (TTR) of four types of super-elastic orthodontic nickel-titanium coil springs (Sentalloy). A knowledge of the TTR provides information on the temperature at which a NiTi wire or spring can assume superelastic properties and when this quality disappears. The spring types in this study can be distinguished from each other by their characteristic TTR during cooling and heating. For each tested spring type a characteristic TTR during heating (austenite transformation) and cooling (martensite transformation) was evaluated. The hysteresis of the transition temperature, found between cooling and heating, was 3.4-5.2 K. Depending on the spring type the austenite transformation started (As) at 9.7-17.1 degrees C and finished (Af) at 29.2-37 degrees C. The martensite transformation starting temperature (Ms) was evaluated at 32.6-25.4 degrees C, while Mf (martensite transformation finishing temperature) was 12.7-6.5 degrees C. The results show that the springs become super-elastic when the temperature increases and As is reached. They undergo a loss of super-elastic properties and a rapid decrease in force delivery when they are cooled to Mf. For the tested springs, Mf and As were found to be below room temperature. Thus, at room temperature and some degrees lower, all the tested springs exert super-elastic properties. For orthodontic treatment this means the maintenance of super-elastic behaviour, even when mouth temperature decreases to about room temperature as can occur, for example, during meals.  (+info)