An improved method for the structural profiling of keratan sulfates: analysis of keratan sulfates from brain and ovarian tumors.
A previously developed method for the structural fingerprinting of keratan sulfates (Brown et al., Glycobiology, 5, 311-317, 1995) has been adapted for use with oligosaccharides fluorescently labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid following keratanase II digestion. The oligosaccharides are separated by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on a Dionex AS4A-SC column. This methodology permits quantitative analysis of labeled oligosaccharides which can be detected at the sub-nanogram ( approximately 100 fmol) level. Satisfactory calibration of this method can be achieved using commercial keratan sulfate standards. Keratan sulfates from porcine brain phosphocan and human ovarian tumors have been examined using this methodology, and their structural features are discussed. (+info)
Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast.
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque. (+info)
Tranilast suppresses vascular chymase expression and neointima formation in balloon-injured dog carotid artery.
BACKGROUND: Activation of vascular chymase plays a major role in myointimal hypertrophy after vascular injury by augmenting the production of angiotensin (ANG) II. Because chymase is synthesized mainly in mast cells, we assumed that the chymase-dependent ANG II formation could be downregulated by tranilast, a mast cell-stabilizing antiallergic agent. We have assessed inhibitory effects of tranilast on neointima formation after balloon injury in the carotid artery of dogs, which share a similar ANG II-forming chymase with humans, and further explored the pathophysiological significance of vascular chymase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Either tranilast (50 mg/kg BID) or vehicle was orally administered to beagles for 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after balloon injury. Four weeks after the injury, remarkable neointima was formed in the carotid arteries of vehicle-treated dogs. Chymase mRNA levels and chymaselike activity of vehicle-treated injured arteries were increased 10.2- and 4.8-fold, respectively, those of uninjured arteries. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was slightly increased in the injured arteries, whereas ACE mRNA levels were not. Tranilast treatment completely prevented the increase in chymaselike activity, reduced the chymase mRNA levels by 43%, and decreased the carotid intima/media ratio by 63%. In vehicle-treated injured arteries, mast cell count in the adventitia showed a great increase, which was completely prevented by the tranilast treatment. Vascular ACE activity and mRNA levels were unaffected by tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: Tranilast suppressed chymase gene expression, which was specifically activated in the injured arteries, and prevented neointima formation. Suppression of the chymase-dependent ANG II-forming pathway may contribute to the beneficial effects of tranilast. (+info)
Three distinct anti-allergic drugs, amlexanox, cromolyn and tranilast, bind to S100A12 and S100A13 of the S100 protein family.
To investigate the roles of calcium-binding proteins in degranulation, we used three anti-allergic drugs, amlexanox, cromolyn and tranilast, which inhibit IgE-mediated degranulation of mast cells, as molecular probes in affinity chromatography. All of these drugs, which have different structures but similar function, scarcely bound to calmodulin in bovine lung extract, but bound to the same kinds of calcium-binding proteins, such as the 10-kDa proteins isolated in this study, calcyphosine and annexins I-V. The 10-kDa proteins obtained on three drug-coupled resins and on phenyl-Sepharose were analysed by reversed-phase HPLC. It was found that two characteristic 10-kDa proteins, one polar and one less polar, were bound with all three drugs, although S100A2 (S100L), of the S100 family, was bound with phenyl-Sepharose. The cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence proved our major polar protein to be identical with the calcium-binding protein in bovine amniotic fluid (CAAF1, S100A12). The cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of the less-polar protein shared 95% homology with human and mouse S100A13. In addition, it was demonstrated that the native S100A12 and recombinant S100A12 and S100A13 bind to immobilized amlexanox. On the basis of these findings, we speculate that the three anti-allergic drugs might inhibit degranulation by binding with S100A12 and S100A13. (+info)
Tranilast inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell growth and intimal hyperplasia by induction of p21(waf1/cip1/sdi1) and p53.
Tranilast, which is an antiallergic drug, has a potent effect on preventing postangioplasty restenosis. To elucidate this mechanism, we studied the effect of tranilast on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro and in vivo. Tranilast decreased the growth rate of SMCs stimulated by either 10% FBS or platelet-derived growth factor. The IC50 value, evaluated as cell number, was 100 micromol/L. These inhibitory effects were associated with inhibition of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) phosphorylation. Because pRb phosphorylation is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), we investigated CDK2 and CDK4 activities and the expression of CDK inhibitor p21(waf1/cip1/sdi1) (p21). When SMCs were stimulated by 10% FBS or platelet-derived growth factor, CDK2 and CDK4 activities reached a maximum near the G1/S transition. Tranilast suppressed their activities by >80% without reduction of CDK2/cyclin E and CDK4/cyclin D1 protein levels. These inhibitory effects were associated with enhanced expression of p21 and elevated complexing of p21 with CDK2/CDK4. Next, rat balloon-injured carotid artery was analyzed for intimal thickening and p21 expression. Tranilast-treated rats had a 70% (P<0.001) smaller neointima/media area ratio at 14 days after balloon injury compared with the controls. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that, in tranilast-treated rats, p21 was already present in the neointima at day 7 and strongly expressed throughout the neointima at day 14. In control rats, p21 was not observed in the neointima at day 7 but was sparsely expressed at day 14. These data demonstrate that inhibition of CDK2/CDK4 activities by the increased expression of p21 may be one mechanism by which tranilast inhibits SMC proliferation and prevents postangioplasty restenosis. (+info)
Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Azospirillum brasilense. Insights from quantum chemistry.
Quantum chemical methods AM1 and PM3 and chromatographic methods were used to qualitatively characterize pathways of bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The standard free energy changes (delta G(o)'sum) for the synthesis of tryptophan (Trp) from chorismic acid via anthranilic acid and indole were calculated, as were those for several possible pathways for the synthesis of IAA from Trp, namely via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). The delta G(o)'sum for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid was -402 (-434) kJ.mol-1 (values in parentheses were calculated by PM3). The delta G(o)'sum for IAA synthesis from Trp were -565 (-548) kJ.mol-1 for the IAN pathway, -481 (-506) kJ.mol-1 for the IAM pathway, and -289 (-306) kJ.mol-1 for the IPyA pathway. By HPLC analysis, the possibility was assessed that indole, anthranilic acid, and Trp might be utilized as precursors for IAA synthesis by Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp 245. The results indicate that there is a high motive force for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid and for IAA synthesis from Trp, and make it unlikely that anthranilic acid and indole act as the precursors to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway. (+info)
Evidence of a cyclooxygenase-related prostaglandin synthesis in coral. The allene oxide pathway is not involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Certain corals are rich natural sources of prostaglandins, the metabolic origin of which has remained undefined. By analogy with the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase pathway to jasmonic acid in plants, the presence of (8R)-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase in the coral Plexaura homomalla suggested a potential metabolic route to prostaglandins (Brash, A. R., Baertshi, S. W., Ingram, C.D., and Harris, T. M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 15829-15839). Other evidence, from the Arctic coral Gersemia fruticosa, has indicated a cyclooxygenase intermediate in the biosynthesis (Varvas, K., Koljak, R., Jarving, I., Pehk, T., and Samel, N. (1994) Tetrahedron Lett. 35, 8267-8270). In the present study, active preparations of G. fruticosa have been used to identify both types of arachidonic acid metabolism and specific inhibitors were used to establish the enzyme type involved in the prostaglandin biosynthesis. The synthesis of prostaglandins and (11R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was inhibited by mammalian cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, aspirin, and tolfenamic acid), while the formation of the products of the 8-lipoxygenase/allene oxide pathway was not affected or was increased. The specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, nimesulide, did not inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins in coral. We conclude that coral uses two parallel routes for the initial oxidation of polyenoic acids: the cyclooxygenase route, which leads to optically active prostaglandins, and the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase metabolism, the role of which remains to be established. An enzyme related to mammalian cyclooxygenases is the key to prostaglandin synthesis in coral. Based on our inhibitor data, the catalytic site of this evolutionary early cyclooxygenase appears to differ significantly from both known mammalian cyclooxygenases. (+info)
Molecular characterization of the genes of actinomycin synthetase I and of a 4-methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid carrier protein involved in the assembly of the acylpeptide chain of actinomycin in Streptomyces.
Actinomycin synthetase I (ACMS I) activates 4-methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, the precursor of the chromophoric moiety of the actinomycin, as adenylate. The gene acmA of ACMS I was identified upstream of the genes acmB and acmC encoding the two peptide synthetases ACMS II and ACMS III, respectively, which assemble the pentapeptide lactone rings of the antibiotic. Sequence analysis and expression of acmA in Streptomyces lividans as enzymatically active hexa-His-fusion confirmed the acmA gene product to be ACMS I. An open reading frame of 234 base pairs (acmD), which encodes a 78-amino acid protein with similarity to various acyl carrier proteins, is located downstream of acmA. The acmD gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as hexa-His-fusion protein (Acm acyl carrier protein (AcmACP)). ACMS I in the presence of ATP acylated the purified AcmACP with radioactive p-toluic acid, used as substrate in place of 4-MHA. Only 10% of the AcmACP from E. coli was acylated, suggesting insufficient modification with 4'-phosphopantetheine cofactor. Incubation of this AcmACP with a holo-ACP synthase and coenzyme A quantitatively established the holo-form of AcmACP. Enzyme assays in the presence of ACMS II showed that toluyl-AcmACP directly acylated the thioester-bound threonine on ACMS II. Thus, AcmACP is a 4-MHA carrier protein in the peptide chain initiation of actinomycin synthesis. (+info)