Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of artemisinin.
AIMS: The study aimed to identify the specific human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of artemisinin. METHODS: Microsomes from human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed with individual CYP450 cDNAs were investigated for their capacity to metabolize artemisinin. The effect on artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by chemical inhibitors selective for individual forms of CYP450 was investigated. The relative contribution of individual CYP450 isoenzymes to artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes was evaluated with a tree-based regression model of artemisinin disappearance rate and specific CYP450 activities. RESULTS: The involvement of CYP2B6 in artemisinin metabolism was demonstrated by metabolism of artemisinin by recombinant CYP2B6, inhibition of artemisinin disappearance in human liver microsomes by orphenadrine (76%) and primary inclusion of CYP2B6 in the tree-based regression model. Recombinant CYP3A4 was catalytically competent in metabolizing artemisinin, although the rate was 10% of that for recombinant CYP2B6. The tree-based regression model suggested CYP3A4 to be of importance in individuals with low CYP2B6 expression. Even though ketoconazole inhibited artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by 46%, incubation with ketoconazole together with orphenadrine did not increase the inhibition of artemisinin metabolism compared to orphenadrine alone. Troleandomycin failed to inhibit artemisinin metabolism. The rate of artemisinin metabolism in recombinant CYP2A6 was 15% of that for recombinant CYP2B6. The inhibition of artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by 8-methoxypsoralen (a CYP2A6 inhibitor) was 82% but CYP2A6 activity was not included in the regression tree. CONCLUSIONS: Artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes is mediated primarily by CYP2B6 with probable secondary contribution of CYP3A4 in individuals with low CYP2B6 expression. The contribution of CYP2A6 to artemisinin metabolism is likely of minor importance. (+info)
Orphenadrine prevents 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.
1. Previous studies indicate that 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) neurotoxicity involves the excitotoxic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Thus, we examined the effect of orphenadrine (an anticholinergic drug with NMDA receptor antagonist properties) on 3-NPA neurotoxicity in both cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) and in rats. 2. Orphenadrine protected CGCs from 3-NPA-induced mortality, as assessed by both the neutral red viability assay and laser scanning cytometry, using propidium iodide staining. 3. For rats, two indirect markers of neuronal damage were used: the binding of [(3)H]-PK 11195 to the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a microglial marker, and expression of the 27 kD heat-shock protein (HSP27), a marker of activated astroglia. Systemic administration of 3-NPA (30 mg kg(-1) per day for 3 days) induced a 170% increase in [(3)H]-PK 11195 binding, and expression of HSP27. 4. Both the increase in [(3)H]-PK 11195 and HSP 27 expression were prevented by previous administration of 30 mg kg(-1) per day of orphenadrine for 3 days. Lower doses (10 and 20 mg kg(-1)) had no protective effect. Orphenadrine also reduced 3-NPA-induced mortality in a dose-dependent manner. 5. We propose that orphenadrine or orphenadrine-like drugs could be used to treat neurodegenerative disorders mediated by overactivation of NMDA receptors. (+info)
Extrapyramidal effects of neuroleptics.
A study was conducted on 66 psychiatric inpatients who took major tranquilizers for periods of four to 16 years. The frequency of signs of Parkinsonism and the effects of orphenadrine on these were studied in a double-blind crossover method. Sixty-one per cent of the patients showed signs of Parkinsonism. Female patients and those with organic brain pathology more frequently exhibited Parkinsonism (although the difference was not statistically significant). No correlation was found between duration of treatment and extrapyramidal effects. Of the 40 patients who developed Parkinsonism, 25 responded favourably to orphenadrine, while six (15%) had more marked manifestations on orphenadrine than on placebo. (+info)
Cytochrome P4502B6 and 2C9 do not metabolize midazolam: kinetic analysis and inhibition study with monoclonal antibodies.
We determined the contribution of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms to the metabolism of midazolam by kinetic analysis of human liver microsomes and CYP isoforms and by examining the effect of chemical inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies against CYP isoforms in vitro. Midazolam was metabolized to 1'-hydroxymidazolam (1'-OH MDZ) by human liver microsomes with a Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 4.1 (1.0) (mean (SD)) micromol litre(-1) and a maximum rate of metabolism (Vmax) of 5.5 (1.1) nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) (n = 6). Of the nine representative human liver CYP isoforms, CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5, three (CYP2B6, 3A4 and 3A5) showed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation activity, with Kms of 40.7, 1.7 and 3.0 micromol litre(-1), respectively, and Vmax values of 12.0, 3.3 and 13.2 nmol min(-1) nmol P450(-1), respectively (n = 4). Midazolam 1'-hydroxylation activity of human liver microsomes correlated significantly with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation activity, a marker of CYP3A activity (r2 = 0.77, P = 0.0001), but not with S-mephenytoin N-demethylation activity, a marker of CYP2B6 activity (r2 < 0.01, P = 0.84) (n = 11). Troleandomycin and orphenadrine, chemical inhibitors of CYP isoforms, inhibited the formation of 1'-OH MDZ by human liver microsomes. Monoclonal antibody against CYP3A4 inhibited the formation of 1'-OH MDZ by 79%, whereas monoclonal antibody against CYP2B6 had no effect on midazolam 1'-hydroxylation by human liver microsomes (n = 5). These results indicate that only CYP3A4, but not CYP2B6 or CYP2C, is involved in the metabolism of midazolam in vitro. (+info)
Upregulation of cytochromes P450 2B in rat liver by orphenadrine.
1 The alkylamine drug orphenadrine (ORPH) is an inducer and inhibitor of the microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) system in mammals. This study evaluated the selectivity of CYP induction by ORPH in rat liver. 2 Immunoblot analysis indicated that ORPH was a selective inducer of the phenobarbitone (PB)-inducible CYP2B in rat liver. CYP2B protein was increased to approximately 14-fold of levels in untreated rat liver. By comparison PB increased CYP2B expression 40-fold. Corresponding increases in the activity of CYP2B-dependent androstenedione 16beta-hydroxylation were measured in microsomes from ORPH and PB-induced rats. 3 Northern analysis indicated that CYP2B1/2 mRNA was increased in ORPH-induced rat liver. Consistent with this finding, ORPH was found to activate a PB-responsive enhancer module in constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)-transfected Hep G2 cells. 4 Other alkylamines like troleandomycin impair CYP turnover. We tested whether ORPH induction of CYP2B may include a post-translational component. In PB-pretreated animals ORPH administration delayed the loss of CYP2B after PB withdrawal, but no evidence for altered turnover was found. 5 These studies establish ORPH as a selective inducer of CYP2B in rat liver. Induction appears to be mediated pretranslationally by CAR activation of CYP2B gene transcription. Post-translational stabilisation by an ORPH metabolite does not elicit induction. Induction of CYP2B may influence pharmacokinetic interactions involving ORPH. (+info)
Inhibition by cations of antagonist binding to histamine H1-receptors: differential effect of sodium ions on the binding of two radioligands.
1. Measurements have been made of the inhibition by mono- and divalent cations of the binding of [3H]-(+)-N-methyl-4-methyldiphenhydramine ([3H]-QMDP) to histamine H1-receptors in homogenates of guinea-pig cerebellum. 2. The binding of [3H]-QMDP was inhibited by monovalent cations with an order of potency Li+ = Na+ greater than K+ greater than Cs+ = Rb+. The IC50 for Li+ was 39 mM, but that for K+ was 132 mM. Hill coefficients for inhibition curves for Li+ and Na+ were less than 1. 3. Divalent cations also inhibited the binding of [3H]-QMDP. The most potent cations examined were Hg2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+, with IC50 values of 5, 17 and 41 microM, respectively. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were relatively weak inhibitors (IC50 12 and 34 mM, respectively). The potency of Ni2+, Co2+ and Mn2+ was intermediate between these groups. Hill coefficients for inhibition curves for Hg2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ were greater than 1, but Hill coefficients for the other cations were less than 1. 4. Both mono- and divalent cations also inhibited the binding of [3H]-mepyramine. The divalent cations were approximately equipotent in inhibiting the binding of [3H]-QMDP and [3H]-mepyramine. The same was true for Li+. However, Na+ was markedly more effective against [3H]-QMDP binding than against the binding of [3H]-mepyramine. 5. The effect of 40 mM Li+ on the parameters of binding of [3H]-mepyramine was to increase the best-fit value of the concentration giving half-maximal binding EC50, by approximately 2 fold without having any significant effect on the maximum amount of binding. Cd2+ (15 microM) caused both an increase in EC 0 and a decrease in Bmax (32 +/- 4% inhibition). Na+, 100 mm, had no significant effect on either EC50 or Bmax for [3H]-mepyramine binding. (+info)
Propofol metabolism is enhanced after repetitive ketamine administration in rats: the role of cytochrome P-450 2B induction.
BACKGROUND: In a series of ex vivo and in vivo studies we investigated the ability of repetitive ketamine administration to alter the metabolism and anaesthetic effect of propofol and the role of ketamine-mediated P-450 2B induction in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 80 mg kg(-1) ketamine i.p. twice daily for 4 days. Pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (PROD), P-450 2B protein and mRNA were determined. Residual propofol concentration was measured after incubating hepatic microsomes with 100 muM propofol. Sleeping times induced by i.p. 80 mg kg(-1) propofol were determined. Orphenadrine, a P-450 2B inhibitor, was added in both ex vivo and in vivo studies. Finally, serial whole blood propofol concentrations were determined after i.v. infusion of 15 mg kg(-1) propofol. RESULTS: Ketamine pretreatment produced 5.4-, 3.4- and 1.7-fold increases in hepatic PROD activity, P-450 2B protein and mRNA, respectively. Residual propofol concentration was 46% lower after incubation with microsomes from ketamine-pretreated rats than in the control group. The addition of orphenadrine to ketamine-pretreated microsomes produced an increase in residual propofol concentration in a concentration-dependent manner. Ketamine pretreatment reduced propofol sleeping time to 12% of the control, which was reversed by orphenadrine. The whole blood propofol concentration in ketamine-pretreated rats was significantly lower than that of control rats at 1, 2, 4 and 8 min after cessation of propofol infusion. CONCLUSIONS: Repetitive ketamine administration enhances propofol metabolism and reduces propofol sleeping time in rats. We suggest that P-450 2B induction may produce ketamine-propofol interaction in anaesthetic practice. (+info)
Efficacy and safety of combined piroxicam, dexamethasone, orphenadrine, and cyanocobalamin treatment in mandibular molar surgery.
Third molar extraction is a common procedure frequently accompanied by moderate or severe pain, and involves sufficient numbers of patients to make studies relatively easy to perform. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the therapeutic combination of 10 mg piroxicam, 1 mg dexamethasone, 35 mg orphenadrine citrate, and 2.5 mg cyanocobalamin (Rheumazin) when compared with 20 mg piroxicam alone (Feldene) in mandibular third molar surgery. Eighty patients scheduled for removal of the third molar were included in this randomized and double-blind study. They received (vo) Rheumazin or Feldene 30 min after tooth extraction and once daily for 4 consecutive days. Pain was determined by a visual analogue scale and by the need for escape analgesia (paracetamol). Facial swelling was evaluated with a measuring tape and adverse effects and patient satisfaction were recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in facial swelling between Rheumazin and Feldene (control group). Both drugs were equally effective in the control of pain, with Rheumazin displaying less adverse effects than Feldene. Therefore, Rheumazin appears to provide a better risk/benefit ratio in the mandibular molar surgery. Since the side effects resulting from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration are a severe limitation to the routine use of these drugs in clinical practice, our results suggest that Rheumazin can be a good choice for third molar removal treatment. (+info)