Ski is a component of the histone deacetylase complex required for transcriptional repression by Mad and thyroid hormone receptor.
The N-CoR/SMRT complex containing mSin3 and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mediates transcriptional repression by nuclear hormone receptors and Mad. The proteins encoded by the ski proto-oncogene family directly bind to N-CoR/SMRT and mSin3A, and forms a complex with HDAC. c-Ski and its related gene product Sno are required for transcriptional repression by Mad and thyroid hormone receptor (TRbeta). The oncogenic form, v-Ski, which lacks the mSin3A-binding domain, acts in a dominant-negative fashion, and abrogates transcriptional repression by Mad and TRbeta. In ski-deficient mouse embryos, the ornithine decarboxylase gene, whose expression is normally repressed by Mad-Max, is expressed ectopically. These results show that Ski is a component of the HDAC complex and that Ski is required for the transcriptional repression mediated by this complex. The involvement of c-Ski in the HDAC complex indicates that the function of the HDAC complex is important for oncogenesis. (+info)
Translocation of ornithine decarboxylase to the surface membrane during cell activation and transformation.
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is highly up-regulated in proliferating and transforming cells. Here we show that upon induction, an initial cytosolic increase of ODC is followed by translocation of a fraction of the enzyme to the surface membrane. ODC membrane translocation is mediated by a p47(phox) membrane-targeting motif-related sequence, as indicated by reduced ODC activity in the membrane fraction of cells treated with a competing, ODC-derived (amino acids 165-172) peptide, RLSVKFGA, which is homologous to the p47(phox) membrane-targeting sequence. p47(phox) membrane translocation is known to be dependent on the phosphorylation of the targeting motif. Analogously, overexpressed ODC.S167A, a mutant ODC lacking the putative phosphorylation site Ser67, is unable to move to the surface membrane. Cells blocked with the RLSVKFGA peptide showed defective transformation, indicating that the motif-mediated translocation of ODC is prerequisite to its biological function. Constitutive targeting of ODC to the membrane using a plasmid encoding the chimeric protein, wild-type ODC with C-terminal linkage to the farnesylation motif of K-ras, caused impaired cytokinesis with an accumulation of polykaryotic cells. Impaired cytokinesis confirms that ODC is involved in mitotic cytoskeletal rearrangement events and pinpoints the importance of relevant membrane targeting to its physiological function. (+info)
Interaction of asparagine and EGF in the regulation of ornithine decarboxylase in IEC-6 cells.
Our laboratory has shown that asparagine (ASN) stimulates both ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and gene expression in an intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). The effect of ASN is specific, and other A- and N-system amino acids are almost as effective as ASN when added alone. In the present study, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was unable to increase ODC activity in cells maintained in a salt-glucose solution (Earle's balanced salt solution). However, the addition of ASN (10 mM) in the presence of EGF (30 ng/ml) increased the activity of ODC 0.5- to 4-fold over that stimulated by ASN alone. EGF also showed induction of ODC with glutamine and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, but ODC induction was maximum with ASN and EGF. Thus the mechanism of the interaction between ASN and EGF is important for understanding the regulation of ODC under physiological conditions. Therefore, we examined the expression of the ODC gene and those for several protooncogenes under the same conditions. Increased expression of the genes for c-Jun and c-Fos but not for ODC occurred with EGF alone. The addition of ASN did not further increase the expression of the protooncogenes, but the combination of EGF and ASN further increased the expression of ODC over that of ASN alone. Western analysis showed no significant difference in the level of ODC protein in Earle's balanced salt solution, ASN, EGF, or EGF plus ASN. Addition of cycloheximide during ASN and ASN plus EGF treatment completely inhibited ODC activity without affecting the level of ODC protein. These results indicated that 1) the increased expression of protooncogenes in response to EGF is independent of increases in ODC activity and 2) potentiation between EGF and ASN on ODC activity may not be due to increased gene transcription but to posttranslational regulation and the requirement of ongoing protein synthesis involving a specific factor dependent on ASN. (+info)
Lack of inhibitory effects of the Ju-myo protein on development of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci in the male F344 rat liver.
The effects of the 77 kDa Ju-myo protein, isolated from Drosophila melanogaster, on the development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in the male F344 rat liver were evaluated using a medium-term bioassay system. No modifying potential was evident in terms of the numbers or areas of GST-P positive foci. Ju-myo protein did not exert any influence on cell proliferation, as reflected by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) or spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT) activity and BrdU labeling. These results demonstrated that Ju-myo protein is unlikely to have inhibitory or promoting effects on rat liver carcinogenesis. (+info)
Reconstitution of a bacterial/plant polyamine biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Polyamine synthesis in most organisms is initiated by the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Plants, some bacteria and some fungi and protozoa generate putrescine from arginine, via arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatine ureohydrolase (AUH) or agmatine iminohydrolase. A polyamine-requiring strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a mutation in the gene encoding ODC was transformed with plasmids bearing genes encoding Escherichia coli ADC and AUH. Transformants regained the ability to grow in the absence of exogenous polyamines and contained enzyme activities consistent with the presence of both prokaryotic enzymes. Similar results were obtained when a plasmid containing a gene encoding oat (Avena sativa L.) ADC was substituted for the E. coli gene. These data demonstrate the successful complementation of a yeast biosynthetic polyamine synthesis defect by genes encoding an alternative pathway found in bacteria; they also show that plant ADC can substitute for the bacterial enzyme in this pathway. The recombinant yeast provides a tool for the study of the functional properties of these enzymes and for discovery of compounds that specifically inhibit this pathway. (+info)
Agmatine modulates polyamine content in hepatocytes by inducing spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase.
Agmatine has been proposed as the physiological ligand for the imidazoline receptors. It is not known whether it is also involved in the homoeostasis of intracellular polyamine content. To show whether this is the case, we have studied the effect of agmatine on rat liver cells, under both periportal and perivenous conditions. It is shown that agmatine modulates intracellular polyamine content through its effect on the synthesis of the limiting enzyme of the interconversion pathway, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). Increased SSAT activity is accompanied by depletion of spermidine and spermine, and accumulation of putrescine and N1-acetylspermidine. Immunoblotting with a specific polyclonal antiserum confirms the induction. At the same time S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity is significantly increased, while ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and the rate of spermidine uptake are reduced. This is not due to an effect on ODC antizyme, which is not significantly changed. All these modifications are observed in HTC cells also, where they are accompanied by a decrease in proliferation rate. SSAT is also induced by low oxygen tension which mimics perivenous conditions. The effect is synergic with that promoted by agmatine. (+info)
Coordinate changes of polyamine metabolism regulatory proteins during the cell cycle of normal human dermal fibroblasts.
In human dermal fibroblasts, brought to quiescence (G0) by serum starvation, the S phase peaked 24 h and G2/M phases 36 h after serum re-addition. Under the same conditions, ornithine decarboxylase mRNA peaked at 12 h, decreased markedly in S phase and remained low until 48 h. Conversely, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme transcript dropped to its lowest level at 12 h, while reaching its highest values between 24 and 48 h. Ornithine decarboxylase activity followed essentially the pattern of its mRNA, but relative changes were much greater. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase transcript and enzyme activity also peaked at around 12 h, decreasing thereafter. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase mRNA and activity reached the highest values at 36-48 h. Putrescine concentration increased up to 18 h and fell dramatically in the S phase, remaining low thereafter. Both spermidine and spermine reached peaks at 18 h and decreased in the S phase, but not nearly as much as putrescine. We discuss how this comprehensive study may help to understand the involvement of polyamines in the control of cell proliferation. (+info)
Regulation of intracellular polyamine biosynthesis and transport by NO and cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma.
Nitric oxide (NO) has been described to exert cytostatic effects on cellular proliferation; however the mechanisms responsible for these effects have yet to be fully resolved. Polyamines, conversely, are required components of cellular proliferation. In experimental models of inflammation, a relationship between these two pathways has been suggested by the temporal regulation of a common precursor, arginine. This study was undertaken to determine the effects NO and the NO synthase (NOS)-inducing cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), exert on polyamine regulation. The transformed kidney proximal tubule cell line, MCT, maintains high constitutive levels of the first polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). NO donors markedly suppressed ODC activity in MCT and all other cell lines examined. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma induction of NO generation resulted in suppressed ODC activity, an effect prevented by the inducible NOS inhibitor L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL). Dithiothreitol reversal of NO-mediated ODC suppression supports nitrosylation as the mechanism of inactivation. We also evaluated polyamine uptake, inasmuch as inhibition of ODC can result in a compensatory induction of polyamine transporters. Administration of NO donors, or TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, suppressed [3H]putrescine uptake, thereby preventing transport-mediated reestablishment of intracellular polyamine levels. This study demonstrates the capacity of NO and inflammatory cytokines to regulate both polyamine biosynthesis and transport. (+info)