Molecular analysis of the genome of Chuzan virus, a member of the Palyam serogroup viruses, and its phylogenetic relationships to other orbiviruses. (1/41)

The nucleotide sequence of the entire genome of Chuzan virus, which belongs to the Palyam serogroup orbiviruses and causes congenital abnormalities of cattle, has been completed by analysis of the genes encoding minor core proteins (VP1, VP4 and VP6) and non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2 and NS3). The genome of Chuzan virus is 18,915 bp in length and the coding capacity of its open reading frames is 6071 aa. Comparative sequence analysis with other serogroups of the genus Orbivirus indicated that the outer capsid protein VP2, which is the neutralizing antigen, appears to be the most variable and the major core protein VP3 is the most conserved. Overall, the structural proteins, with the exception of VP2, are more conserved than the non-structural proteins among orbiviruses. Chuzan virus is phylogenetically most related to African horsesickness virus.  (+info)

Complete sequence characterization of the genome of the St Croix River virus, a new orbivirus isolated from cells of Ixodes scapularis. (2/41)

An orbivirus identified as St Croix River virus (SCRV) was isolated from cells of Ixodes scapularis ticks. Electron microscopy showed particles with typical orbivirus morphology. The SCRV genome was sequenced completely and compared to previously characterized orbivirus genomes. Significant identity scores (21-38%) were detected between proteins encoded by segments S1, S2, S4, S5, S6, S8, S9 and S10 of SCRV and those encoded by segments S1, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S9 and S10, respectively, of Bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype orbivirus species. The protein encoded by SCRV genome segment 3 (VP3) is thought to be the equivalent of VP2 of BTV. Segment 7 encodes a protein homologous to non-structural protein NS2(ViP) of BTV. Analysis of VP1(Pol) (segment 1) shows that SCRV is an orbivirus, distantly related to the other sequenced species. Blot hybridizations and sequence comparisons of the conserved protein encoded by genome segment 2 (the T2 subcore shell protein) with previously identified orbiviruses confirm that SCRV is a distinct orbivirus species, unrelated to another tick-borne species, Great Island virus. The presence of SCRV in cells prepared from tick eggs suggests that transovarial transmission of SCRV may occur in ticks.  (+info)

Transmission patterns of African horse sickness and equine encephalosis viruses in South African donkeys. (3/41)

African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) viruses are endemic to southern Africa. AHS virus causes severe epidemics when introduced to naive equine populations, resulting in severe restrictions on the movement of equines between AHS-positive and negative countries. Recent zoning of South Africa has created an AHS-free zone to facilitate equine movement, but the transmission dynamics of these viruses are not fully understood. Here, we present further analyses of serosurveys of donkeys in South Africa conducted in 1983-5 and in 1993-5. Age-prevalence data are used to derive estimates of the force of infection, A. For both viruses, A was highest in the northeastern part of the country and declined towards the southwest. In most of the country, EE virus had a higher transmission rate than AHS. The force of infection increased for EE virus between 1985 and 1993, but decreased for AHS virus. Both viruses showed high levels of variation in transmission between districts within the same province, particularly in areas of intermediate transmission. These data emphasize the focal nature of these viruses, and indicate areas where further data will assist in understanding the geographical variation in transmission.  (+info)

A first full outer capsid protein sequence data-set in the Orbivirus genus (family Reoviridae): cloning, sequencing, expression and analysis of a complete set of full-length outer capsid VP2 genes of the nine African horsesickness virus serotypes. (4/41)

The outer capsid protein VP2 of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) is a major protective antigen. We have cloned full-length VP2 genes from the reference strains of each of the nine AHSV serotypes. Baculovirus recombinants expressing the cloned VP2 genes of serotypes 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were constructed, confirming that they all have full open reading frames. This work completes the cloning and expression of the first full set of AHSV VP2 genes. The clones of VP2 genes of serotypes 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8 were sequenced and their amino acid sequences were deduced. Our sequencing data, together with that of the published VP2 genes of serotypes 3, 4, 6 and 9, were used to generate the first complete sequence analysis of all the (sero)types for a species of the Orbivirus genus. Multiple alignment of the VP2 protein sequences showed that homology between all nine AHSV serotypes varied between 47.6 % and 71.4 %, indicating that VP2 is the most variable AHSV protein. Phylogenetic analysis grouped together the AHSV VP2s of serotypes that cross-react serologically. Low identity between serotypes was demonstrated for specific regions within the VP2 amino acid sequences that have been shown to be antigenic and play a role in virus neutralization. The data presented here impact on the development of new vaccines, the identification and characterization of antigenic regions, the development of more rapid molecular methods for serotype identification and the generation of comprehensive databases to support the diagnosis, epidemiology and surveillance of AHS.  (+info)

Comparison of the major structural core proteins of tick-borne and Culicoides-borne orbiviruses. (5/41)

Comparison of sequence data for Broadhaven (BRD) virus, a tick-borne orbivirus, and bluetongue virus (BTV), the type species of the genus, indicated that RNA segments 2 and 7 of BRD virus encode the two structural core proteins, VP2 and VP7, respectively. Segment 2 is 2792 nucleotides in length with a coding capacity for a protein (VP2) of 908 amino acids and a net charge of +8.5 at neutral pH. Segment 7 is 1174 nucleotides in length with a coding capacity for a protein (VP7) of 356 amino acids and a net charge of +11.5 at neutral pH. Comparison of the two sequences with BTV serotype 10 revealed amino acid identity of 35% between the product of segment 2 and BTV VP3, and 21% between the product of segment 7 and BTV VP7. The core proteins therefore show evidence of significant evolutionary divergence compared with that shown between different insect-borne orbiviruses. In particular, the amino terminus of BRD virus VP7 differed markedly from the equivalent region in VP7 of BTV and African horse sickness virus. This region is thought to interact with the outer capsid layer of insect-borne orbiviruses.  (+info)

Apoptosis in Vero cells infected with Akabane, Aino and Chuzan virus. (6/41)

Akabane, Aino and Chuzan virus are arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses mainly associated with reproductive failures in cattle. We investigated apoptosis in Vero cells (C-1586) infected with Akabane, Aino and Chuzan virus. The fragmentation of chromosomal DNA was simultaneously detected with the progress of cytopathic effect from 48 hr to 72 hr post infection, depending on viruses. Although the treatment of cycloheximide blocked apoptosis in Vero cells infected with three viruses, actinomycin D did not prevent DNA oligomerization, thus indicating that de novo viral protein synthesis is critical for viral apoptosis. In addition, the activation of caspase-3 was also detected in Vero cells by indirect fluorescent assay. From the present results, it is of future interest whether apoptotic characteristics of these viruses are related to pathogenecity in vivo.  (+info)

Yunnan orbivirus, a new orbivirus species isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in China. (7/41)

An orbivirus designated Yunnan orbivirus (YUOV) was isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes collected in the Yunnan province of China. Electron microscopy showed particles with typical orbivirus morphology. The YUOV genome was sequenced completely and compared with previously characterized orbivirus genomes. Significant identity scores were detected between proteins encoded by the segments (Seg-1 to Seg-10) of YUOV and those encoded by their homologues in insect-borne and tick-borne orbiviruses. Analysis of VP1 (Pol) and VP2 (T2, which correlates with the virus serogroup) indicated that YUOV is a new species of the genus Orbivirus that is unrelated to the other insect-borne orbiviruses. The replication of YUOV in mosquito cell lines was restricted to Aedes albopictus cells and the virus failed to replicate in mammalian cell lines. However, intraperitoneal injection of virus into naive mice resulted in productive, non-lethal virus replication and viraemia. Infected mice developed serum neutralizing antibodies and were protected against a new infection challenge. Sequence analysis of clones from the segments encoding outer coat proteins (Seg-3 and Seg-6) of YUOV recovered from mouse blood did not show significant changes in the sequences. The availability of the complete genome sequence will facilitate the development of sequence-specific PCR assays for the study of YUOV epidemiology in the field.  (+info)

Characterization of Minacu virus (Reoviridae: Orbivirus) and pathological changes in experimentally infected newborn mice. (8/41)

Minacu virus was isolated from Ochlerotatus scapularis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Minacu, Goias State, Brazil, in 1996. In attempting characterization of virus serological (hemagluttination inhibition, HI; indirect immunofluorescence assay, IFA), physicochemical [test for deoxycholate acid (DCA) sensitivity; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)] tests and ultrastructural studies were made. Virus was also assayed in suckling mice after intracerebral inoculation of 0.02 ml and in VERO and C6/36 cells with 0.1 ml of viral suspension containing 10(5) LD50/ml. Inoculated and control systems were observed daily. Every 24 h, one control and two inoculated animals were killed for tissue testing, including histopathological changes by haematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained sections, which were semi-quantified. Research into viral antigen in the tissues of mice [central nervous system (CNS), liver, heart, lungs, spleen and kidneys] was carried out by the immunohistochemical technique using the peroxidase system. The virus only replicated in VERO cells, with antigen positive by IFA. Positive complement fixation tests were only obtained using antiserum of Minacu virus. Minacu virus is DCA resistant; haemagglutinating activity was negative. By electronic microscopy non-enveloped virus particles were 75 nm in diameter. PAGE analysis showed Minacu virus genome profile with 10 RNA segments. Infected, non-killed animals died 7 days after inoculation. Tissue lesions were observed in all organs, except the lungs. Intense lesions were observed in the CNS and the heart, where neurone and cardiocyte necroses, respectively, were noted. The liver, spleen and kidneys had moderate tissue changes. Viral antigens were more abundant in the CNS and the heart, and absent in the lungs. In conclusion, Minacu virus belongs to the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus.  (+info)