Dirofilariasis is a helminthic zoonosis occurring in many parts of the world. We report the findings in a 61-year-old woman who had painless right exophthalmos caused by orbital dirofilariasis. A vivid worm was embedded inside an inflammatory nodule in the right orbit. On T1-weighted MR images, the parasite was visible as a discrete, low-intensity, tubular signal in the center of the nodule surrounded by contrast-enhancing inflammatory tissue. (+info)
Significance of serum antibodies reactive with flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase in thyroid associated orbitopathy.
AIMS: Thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune disorder of extraocular muscles and orbital connective tissue. Identification of the principal target antigens would help the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and possibly lead to the development of specific therapies in the future. The purpose of this study was to measure serum antibodies against the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase in patients with TAO and correlate their presence with factors of TAO. METHODS: Sera of patients with active TAO of 6 months' duration or less were tested for antibodies against the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase. Clinical data were obtained by retrospective review of patients' charts. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to test sera for serum antibodies against purified succinate dehydrogenase. RESULTS: 38 patients with TAO and 32 healthy age and sex matched controls were included in the study. Anti-flavoprotein antibodies were detected in 24 out of 38 patients with TAO (63.16%) and in five out of 32 healthy controls (15.63%) (p<0.01). Neither age, sex, duration of thyroid disease, thyroid status, treatment of thyroid disease, smoking history, duration of orbitopathy, activity of orbitopathy, nor the presence of lid retraction were significantly associated with the presence of serum anti-flavoprotein antibodies (p>0.05). However, the total number of rectus muscles affected in both eyes of the patients was significantly correlated with the finding of a positive antibody test (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Serum antibodies reactive with the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase are associated with extraocular muscle involvement in active TAO of recent onset. (+info)
Idiopathic sclerotic inflammation of the orbit with left optic nerve compression in a patient with multifocal fibrosclerosis.
We present the MR imaging findings in a 43-year-old male patient with bilateral idiopathic sclerosing inflammation of the orbit. Bilateral enhancing retrobulbar masses, with concentric compression of the retrobulbar segment of the left optic nerve, were seen. MR imaging proved to be the only means to distinguish between the different intraorbital structures and to determine the exact site of optic nerve compression. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of MR imaging findings of this entity. (+info)
Radiological and clinicopathological features of orbital xanthogranuloma.
BACKGROUND: Orbital xanthogranuloma, a diagnosis confirmed histologically, occurs rarely in adults and children. With its characteristic macroscopic appearance the adult form may be associated with a spectrum of biochemical and haematological abnormalities including lymphoproliferative malignancies. METHOD: The clinicopathological features and imaging appearances on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of this condition are described in eight adults and a child. RESULTS: Radiological evidence of proptosis was present in seven patients. In all nine patients an abnormal infiltrative soft tissue mass was seen, with increased fat in six cases. All patients had associated enlargement of extraocular muscles suggestive of infiltration and five had lacrimal gland involvement. Encasement of the optic nerve, bone destruction, and intracranial extension was present only in the child with juvenile xanthogranuloma. Haematological and/or biochemical abnormalities were detected in seven patients and seven patients had other systemic diseases which were considered to have an immune basis. One patient subsequently developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. CONCLUSION: The investigation and management of orbital xanthogranulomas requires a multidisciplinary approach even though the diagnosis may be suspected clinically. Imaging delineates the extent of disease and involvement of local structures and may influence the differential diagnosis. The juvenile form may be more locally aggressive, causing bone destruction with consequent intracranial extension. (+info)
Chronic, traumatic intraconal hematic cyst of the orbit removed through the fronto-orbital approach--case report.
A 22-year-old male presented with a chronic encapsulated intraorbital hematoma 3 months after blunt trauma to his left eyeball. Ophthalmological examination found the best corrected visual acuity was 4/20 in the left eye, and 20/20 in the right eye. The orbit exhibited exophthalmus and inability of the eye to move above the horizontal level. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed a fairly well-demarcated area in the medial aspect of the orbit appearing as hyperintense on T1-weighted images and isoto hyperintense on T2-weighted images. This area was believed to be hemorrhage. No other abnormalities were found. The diagnosis was hematic cyst. The cyst was approached through a left fronto-orbital route and its location identified within the periorbita and orbital fat. The cyst was removed partially. Histological examination demonstrated cystic accumulation of blood and breakdown products in a non-epithelium-lined fibrous capsule, compatible with hematic cyst. The presence of hemosiderin in the cyst wall suggested that the cyst was a chronically enlarging lesion. Hematic cysts of the orbit usually present as subperiosteal mass months to years after trauma. Surgical removal of the cyst wall rather than needle aspiration is recommended to prevent recurrence. (+info)
Adipogenesis in thyroid eye disease.
PURPOSE: Adipogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease (TED). Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) transcripts are present in orbital fat. This study was conducted to determine whether they are expressed as functional protein, and if so, whether this is restricted to TED orbits or to a particular stage in adipocyte differentiation. METHODS: Samples of fat were obtained from 18 TED-affected orbits and 4 normal orbits, and 9 were obtained from nonorbital locations. Frozen sections were examined by immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies specific for the human TSHR. Samples were disaggregated and the preadipocytes separated from the mature by differential centrifugation and cultured in serum-free or DM and examined for morphologic changes, oil red O and TSHR staining, and TSH-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production. RESULTS: Marked immunoreactivity was observed in frozen sections from all three TED samples and faint staining in both normal orbital fat samples. In vitro, 1% to 5% of preadipocytes displayed TSHR immunoreactivity in five of six TED and two of three normal orbital samples and in three of five nonorbital samples. Differentiation, was induced in all 14 orbital samples. Three of four nonorbital samples contained occasional differentiated cells. Fifty percent to 70% of differentiating cells demonstrated receptor immunoreactivity. Two of three TED and four of four nonorbital preadipocytes in DM and/or mature adipocytes displayed a TSH-mediated increase in cAMP. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that orbital fat TSHR transcripts are expressed as protein, which can be functional. This is not aberrant in TED orbits, although expression may be upregulated. The majority of preadipocytes undergoing differentiation express the receptor, indicating a key role for this population in one mechanism for increasing orbital volume. (+info)
MRI dynamic color mapping: a new quantitative technique for imaging soft tissue motion in the orbit.
PURPOSE: To investigate both feasibility and clinical potential of magnetic resonance imaging-dynamic color mapping (MRI-DCM) in measuring the motion of soft tissues in the orbit and in the diagnosis of orbital disorders by detecting changes in motion. METHODS: Sequences of MRI scans were acquired (acquisition time, 5 seconds) in a shoot-stop manner, while the patient fixated at a sequence of 13 gaze positions (8 degrees intervals). Motion was quantified off-line (in millimeters per degree of gaze change) using an optical flow algorithm. The motion was displayed in a color-coded image in which color saturation of a pixel shows the displacement and the hue the displacement's orientation. Six healthy volunteers and four patients (two with an orbital mass and two with acrylic ball implant after enucleation) were studied. RESULTS: The technique was found to be clinically feasible. For a gaze change of 1 degrees, orbital tissues moved between 0.0 and 0.25 mm/deg, depending on the type of tissue and location in the orbit. In the patients with an orbital mass, motion of the mass was similar to that of the medial rectus muscle, suggesting disease of muscular origin. In the enucleated orbits, soft tissue motion was decreased. One eye showed attachment of the optic nerve to the implant, which could be verified by biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: MRI-DCM allows noninvasive and quantitative measurement of soft tissue motion and the changes in motion due to pathologic conditions. In cases in which the diagnosis of a tumor in the apex is in doubt, it may reduce the need for biopsy. In contrast to static computed tomographic (CT) scans and MRIs, it can differentiate between juxtaposition and continuity and may be a new and promising tool in the differential diagnosis of intraorbital lesions. (+info)
Anaerobic orbital abscess/cellulitis in a Yorkshire Terrier dog.
A retrobulbar abscess/cellulitis occurred in a Yorkshire Terrier dog. The clinical signs were exophthalmos, prolapsed nictitating membrane and purulent ocular discharge. Ultrasonography showed a marked soft tissue swelling of the retrobulbar tissues as well as echogenic parallel lines between the globe and the medial orbital rim. Surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and no foreign body was found. The pterygopalatine fossa was incised and therapeutic retrobulbar drainage attempted. A drain was placed to encourage ventral drainage of the abscess. Anaerobic cultures revealed heavy growth of gram negative rods (prevotella bivia and prevotella buccae were isolated). Recovery was successful but subsequent treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca was necessary. A full recovery of tear production occurred after several weeks. (+info)