Training in oral medicine. (1/26)

88 members of the UK specialty society of oral medicine were asked about career satisfaction and their views on training programmes. 70% responded (79% of consultants and all accredited trainees). Men work longer hours than women, report less control over their work and experience more stress. Although high work satisfaction is reported, nearly one-third regret their choice of specialty. Men more than women do locum work while training. Most respondents would welcome flexible training, job shares, financial support during training and a mentoring scheme.  (+info)

Gene expression profiling by DNA microarray technology. (2/26)

Methods in molecular and genetic biology have provided important clues to elucidate the complex mechanisms of oral and craniofacial development and pathogenesis of diseases. It has become increasingly clear that a biological phenotype is a result of multiple factors involving a large number of regulatory genes, while a single nucleotide mutation can cause various degrees of oral and craniofacial abnormalities. These oral and craniofacial problems often present a challenge to the molecular screening process. Recent advances in microarray-based technologies allow for large-scale gene expression analysis in a single experiment, which have been applied to genome-wide assays, mutational analysis, drug discovery, developmental biology, and molecular analysis of various diseases. This review introduces the basic principle and some modifications of techniques and materials used in microarray technology, as well as currently available microarray data analysis strategies. Microarray technology can be applied to the soon-to-be-available human genome database and will be a powerful research tool for those inquiring into specific problems associated with oral and craniofacial biology.  (+info)

Genetic testing considerations for oral medicine. (3/26)

The availability and integration of genetic information into our understanding of normal and abnormal growth and development are driving important changes in health care. These changes have fostered the hope that the availability of genetic information will promote a better understanding of disease etiology and permit early, even pre-symptomatic diagnosis and preventative intervention to avoid disease onset. Expectations for this proactive health care approach are fueled by the technological and scientific advances that have fundamentally changed how we perceive human diseases. Among the clinical applications of this information, genetic testing applications are likely to expand significantly and may broadly impact the clinical practice of dentistry. In this changing environment, it is vital that dental care providers, policymakers, and consumers become aware of important issues related to genetic testing and the incorporation of genetic information into the diagnosis and treatment of common diseases that involve the oral cavity. We must also guard against unrealistic expectations and calls for genetic tests that are not valid. To realize the promise of this new molecular genetics, we must understand the possibilities and responsibly incorporate newly emergent technologies into the evolving discipline of dentistry. This paper overviews many of the important issues that need to be considered in the application of genetic testing to oral medicine.  (+info)

Dental education in Europe: the challenges of variety. (4/26)

Dental education varies considerably across Europe, with differing traditions of stomatology (dentistry as a specialty of medicine) and odontology (single autonomous discipline). Dental curricula within the European Union (EU) are governed by European law expressed in directives that are binding on all EU member states. The Dental Directives (78/686/EC) base the curriculum on the odontological model, but compliance by individual schools is often poor. The differences within the EU will likely intensify with the accession of Eastern/Central European countries where the stomatological tradition is strong. Moreover, current proposals within the EU will reduce even the limited existing effectiveness of the Dental Directives. The DentEd Thematic Network Project, which aims to promote convergence of European curricula through voluntary self-assessment and outside peer review, has involved about 25 percent of European schools. Its effectiveness in inducing changes in individual schools is unknown. It is not an accreditation system, and there is no intention to establish a European-wide common curriculum. Dentists' vocational training, here defined as "the organised education of the newly qualified dentist in supervised practice," is present in various models in many European countries, but is compulsory in only a few. Continuing dental education (CDE) is encouraged in most countries, but CDE-dependent licensure is required in only two.  (+info)

Post graduate training in oral surgery in Spain. (5/26)

The objective of this investigative study is to provide information on the type of public postgraduate training in oral surgery currently being taught in Spain. A descriptive study is made relating to the theoretical and practical syllabuses of the different Masters, through questionnaires answered by students who had previously completed the postgraduate course. Later, a possible relationship between age, sex and previous training in dentistry or stomatology was explored. The results show a poorer preparation in subjects related to the planning and carrying out of treatment of salivary gland pathologies, transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve, treatment of oral tumors, and the treatment planning for osteitis and osteomyelitis. There is a difference between the sexes in a number of answers, where females give higher scores. The stomatologist scores higher in treatment planning for complicated extractions and in the carrying out of dental transplants. It seems that the older the student, the less prepared they are to carry out a treatment plan which includes a biopsy, and the better prepared they are to treat dental emergencies, dentoalveolar trauma, osteitis and osteomyelitis. We can conclude principally that the students give a generally positive evaluation of the oral surgical training, both theoretical and practical, except in the more complex topic areas which appear to relate to the maxillofacial surgeons.  (+info)

Access to oral health care for elders: mere words or action? (6/26)

For many years, the health care community has used a silo approach to oral health, with little exception, treating the oral cavity as the sole province of the dentist, with no interaction with the medical profession. However, as research shows links between periodontal disease and diabetes, stroke, heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease, it seems clear that the silo approach to oral health should be replaced with a new paradigm-that of including dental care in comprehensive medical benefits. Retirees who have limited or no access to traditional employer-based dental benefits should be among the early beneficiaries of this paradigm shift. The federal government should consider social insurance mechanisms to ensure that retirees have access to oral health care.  (+info)

Urgent care in the dental school setting: analysis of current environment and future challenges in emergency dental education. (7/26)

Urgent dental care education is a critical aspect of the D.D.S. curriculum as dental students must be adequately prepared to face real-world dental emergency challenges in practice. Dental emergency education is likely the most variable component of the dental curriculum. To assess potential differences in emergency education, a sixteen-question survey was sent to directors of urgent care of all fifty-six U.S. dental schools addressing clinic operation, demographics, treatment, integration into the D.D.S. curriculum, and provision of care for indigent populations. The response rate was 88 percent. Results indicate a need for earlier integration of urgent dental care education into the D.D.S. curriculum, more pediatric emergency experiences for D.D.S. students, and a more rigorous academic approach in assessing student competency while on rotation in the urgent care service. In addition, access to emergency dental care has become increasingly difficult for indigent populations due to lack of state-supported funds; further exploration of sources of external funding for such care is warranted.  (+info)

Accuracy of referrals to a specialist oral medicine unit by general medical and dental practitioners and the educational implications. (8/26)

In this study we investigated the accuracy of diagnoses of oral mucosal diseases made by family physicians (without a dental degree), other categories of physicians, and general dental practitioners prior to referring patients to a university oral medicine unit. Over a three-year period, we compared the diagnoses proposed in referral letters with the definitive histological diagnoses made by the specialist unit. Only 305 of 678 (45 percent) of the referral letters included a clinical diagnosis. Eighty-six patients (86/305, 28 percent) were referred by general dental practitioners (GDPs) who had graduated in dentistry; seventy-six (76/305, 25 percent) were sent by GDPs who had graduated in medicine with a postgraduate degree in dentistry; and 143 (143/305, 47 percent) were referred by other categories of physicians. More than 50 percent of the referring professionals were not able to make a clinical diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases. Only 40 percent of the provisional diagnoses (122/305) coincided with the diagnosis made at the specialist unit. The proportion of correct diagnoses was 40 percent for GDPs who had graduated in dentistry, 33 percent for other categories of physicians, and 27 percent for GDPs who had graduated in medicine with a postgraduate degree in dentistry. These findings suggest that Italian dental and medical practitioners have limited knowledge in the field of oral medicine. Consequently, there is a need for better education in the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases and for improvement in total oral health training.  (+info)