(1/63) Dental implications of Helicobacter pylori.
Helicobacter pylori infections of the stomach are common worldwide and may cause serious medical problems, ranging from gastritis and its sequelae to gastric carcinoma or lymphoma. Current studies indicate that H. pylori is present in dental plaque, although the number of organisms in individual samples is very low, and these numbers appear to vary from one site to another within the mouth. The presence of this organism in plaque may be intermittent, perhaps occurring as the result of gastroesophageal reflux. It is still unclear if the low numbers of H. pylori present in the mouths of most patients would be sufficient to serve as a source of infection or reinfection for gastric conditions. Whether dental plaque is a significant source for reinfection of the gastric mucosa among patients with fair to poor oral hygiene remains to be confirmed. It has been suggested that attempting to improve oral hygiene through standard periodontal procedures would be prudent as an ancillary measure to conventional ulcer therapy, especially in patients whose gastric infections have proven recalcitrant. H. pylori may also be a cofactor in the recurrence of aphthous ulceration, especially in patients sensitized through gastric colonization and mucosal attachment. (+info)
(2/63) Increased prevalence of dental caries and poor oral hygiene in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
OBJECTIVES: Recent decades have seen a trend to treat juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with increasing immunosuppression to improve the long-term outcome. Poor oral hygiene and dental decay cause significant morbidity, and patients with chronic disease (who may be further immunocompromised by treatment) are at greater risk. This study investigated patients with JIA using standard measures of oral health. METHODS: One hundred and forty-nine patients with JIA were included. The children were attending a regional paediatric rheumatology service and the adults were attending an adult rheumatology clinic. Random age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited from a dental teaching hospital. The structured dental examination included standard epidemiological indices of oral hygiene (gingival index, plaque index, oral cleanliness index) and dental decay [DMFT (decayed, missing or filled teeth) index]. RESULTS: JIA patients, at all ages, had increased levels of dental decay and poor oral hygiene. This increased level of decay was statistically significant in the patients aged 0-11 yr. Significant levels of untreated caries and increased levels of missing teeth were found in JIA, suggesting that patients with JIA had less restorative dental treatment, with tooth extraction often the chosen option for the treatment of dental decay. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study of oral health in JIA and is cross-sectional with non-diseased controls. It shows significantly increased levels of poor oral hygiene and dental decay in patients with JIA. The high levels of untreated dental decay suggest barriers to dental care. These results emphasize the role of regular dental care in the multidisciplinary management of JIA. (+info)
(3/63) Correlation study on oral health and electrocardiogram abnormalities.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal conditions and electrocardiogram test results that were obtained to screen for coronary heart disease risk factors. The present study included a total of 578 subjects who underwent annual medical check-ups at the Total Health Care Center in Otsu, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. To calculate the odds ratios for the electromyography abnormalities, we performed a logistic regression analysis for the oral examination, electrocardiogram, and blood analysis data. The crude odds ratio was obtained by a logistic regression analysis of age, sex, number of missing teeth, number of filled teeth, simplified oral hygiene index, community periodontal index, and blood analysis factors and results indicated there was a statistically significant correlation with the prevalence of electrocardiogram abnormalities. However, electrocardiogram abnormalities have a strong correlation with demographic factors such as sex and age. Therefore the experimental factors representing oral status were reexamined after the odds ratios were adjusted for age and sex. As a result of this adjustment, the new odds ratios that were determined indicated that there were no correlations between the oral factors and the prevalence of electrocardiogram abnormalities. (+info)
(4/63) A subjective comparison of two lingual bracket systems.
The purpose of this prospective, longitudinal study was to compare the influence of two lingual bracket systems on subjective oral comfort, speech, mastication and oral hygiene. Forty-two native speakers of standard German (32 females, 10 males; mean age 27.1 years, standard deviation 12.2) were enrolled and completed a standardized questionnaire directly before insertion of lingual brackets (T0), within 24 hours of bond-up (T1) and 3 months (+/- 1 week) later (T2). Eighteen of the patients were treated with prefabricated brackets (Ormco, seventh generation) (PB group) and 24 with customized brackets (Incognito) (CB group). While no significant intergroup differences were recorded at any of the times with respect to tongue position, conversation pattern, swallowing or oral hygiene, the CB group experienced significantly fewer tongue space restrictions, speech disturbances and impairments in chewing and biting than the PB group at T1 and T2. At T2, pressure sores, reddening or lesions to the tongue were recorded significantly less often in the CB group than in the PB group. This enhanced patient comfort in the CB group was attributed to the smaller dimensions of the customized brackets. This aspect could play a role in attracting more patients to lingual orthodontics in the future. Information given to the patient on the duration and extent of the restrictions associated with lingual orthodontics must be differentiated according to the bracket system used. (+info)
(5/63) Introducing a clinical-behavioural scoring system for children's oral hygiene.
OBJECTIVES: Developing and testing a clinical-behavioural scoring system for assessing children's oral hygiene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One clinical variable (the presence of dental plaque, measured using Silness and Loe's index) and one behavioural variable (self-reported tooth brushing frequency) were combined into secondary data analysis of research databases for 3-6-year-olds and 6-13-year-olds in a Mexican community. The combined scoring is an ordinal scale that depicts suitable, moderate and inadequate hygiene. Blinded dental examiners also collected dmft/DMFT data in standardised conditions. Data was analysed with Spearman's rho, Kruskall-Wallis, non-parametric tests for trends and Pearson's chi2 tests. RESULTS: 1303 children aged 3-6 years old and 1644 children aged 6-13 years old participated in the study. Clear relationships existed between the combined scoring system and dmft (p < 0.01) and between the scoring system and DMFT (p < 0.01), suggesting that the combined clinical-behavioural scoring system is a reasonably accurate measurement of the relationship between caries experience and oral hygiene in children in the given setting. CONCLUSIONS: The combined clinical-behavioural scoring system is a simple, easy-to-use tool that incorporates clinical and behavioural data commonly found in dental systems. Whether the clinical-behavioural scoring system can be generalised remains to be established. (+info)
(6/63) Genetic sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n propylthiouracil: a new risk determinant for dental caries in children.
The aims of the present study were to contrast the prevalence of dental caries in children with different genetic sensitivity levels to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and to determine the taste quality and taste intensity preferences of food products among the taster and nontaster groups. Overall caries experience (dmfs/DMFS) was significantly higher for nontasters than tasters. Caries experience on the available surfaces (dfs/DFS) was found to be significantly higher in nontasters than in medium tasters and in medium tasters than in supertasters (r=-0.41, P < 0.001). Majority of the nontasters were sweet likers and preferred strong tasting food products, while majority of the supertasters were sweet dislikers and preferred weak tastes. There was a significant increase in the overall caries experience in the population, as the genetic ability to detect PROP taste decreased ( P < 0.001). After all associated factors (age, gender, race, number of teeth and OHI-S) were controlled; multiple linear regression analyses revealed that taste was the only variable significantly related to overall caries experience. (+info)
(7/63) Clinical evaluation of an ionic tooth brush on oral hygiene status, gingival status, and microbial parameter.
It has long been recognised that the presence of dental plaque leads to gingivitis and periodontal disease, as well as dental caries. Today tooth brushing is the most widely accepted method of removing plaque. Hence this present clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of an ionic toothbrush on oral hygiene status. For this study, 20 dental students in the age group of 18-20 years were included. All the subjects after undergoing dental prophylaxis were then provided with ionic toothbrushes, either active (equipped with lithium battery) or inactive (without lithium battery). Plaque index and gingival bleeding index were examined at 7th, 14th, and 21st day. Microbial assessment was done for detection of colony forming units (CFU) from the plaque samples which were collected on 0 day and 21st day, both before brushing and after brushing. Results shown a significant reduction in all the parameters and the reduction was more significant in active and inactive ionic toothbrush users. It was concluded that both active and inactive ionic toothbrushes reduced the plaque index and gingival bleeding index scores significantly and active ionic tooth brushes were more effective as compared to inactive ionic toothbrushes. There was no soft tissue trauma following the use of both type of toothbrushes, which showed that ionic toothbrushes were equally safe for regular long-term use. (+info)
(8/63) Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant (P < 0.005). In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant (P < 0.005). The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness. (+info)