Relationship between oral health and nutrition in very old people.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional deficiency. DESIGN: Cross-sectional clinical study. SUBJECTS: 324 institutionalized frail older adults (mean age 85). MEASUREMENTS: Structured oral examination including an evaluation of mucosa, periodontal state, caries prevalence and denture quality. The nutritional status was assessed using serum albumin concentration and the body mass index. Physical dependence was assessed using the Barthel index. To identify oral health disorders associated with markers of malnutrition we performed the Pearson chi2 test separately for edentulous and dentate patients. Subjects with at least one of the identified oral disorders were classified as having compromised oral functional status. RESULTS: About two-thirds of the subjects were functionally dependent and half had either a body mass index <21 kg/m2 or serum albumin <33 g/l. Among the edentulous, wearing dentures with defective bases or not wearing dentures at all were the factors most associated with malnutrition. In dentate subjects, corresponding identifiers were the number of occluding pairs of teeth (five or fewer, either natural or prosthetic), the number of retained roots (four or more), and the presence of mobile teeth. According to these criteria, 31% of the subjects had a compromised oral functional status. This was more frequently found in dependent subjects (37%) than semi-dependent subjects (18%; odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.8). Those with compromised oral functional status had a significantly lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. CONCLUSION: Specific detrimental oral conditions are associated with nutritional deficiency in very old people. (+info)
An exploration of oral health beliefs and attitudes of Chinese in West Yorkshire: a qualitative investigation.
This qualitative study explores oral health beliefs and attitudes among Chinese resident in West Yorkshire using six focus groups differentiated by age and gender. Focus group discussions took place in community settings led by trained Chinese facilitators. All groups believed that they were susceptible to dental disease, and that bleeding gums and total tooth loss were 'normal'; apart from the elderly, tooth loss was seen as undesirable. The elderly and adult groups believed in traditional remedies and claimed that preventive oral health measures were ineffective. These groups lacked faith in dentists, and for them cost, language difficulties and lack of awareness were the main reported barriers to accessing dental services. Traditional Chinese oral health beliefs remain influential for the elderly and adult UK Chinese. In contrast, teenagers thought that toothbrushing and sugar restriction would help to prevent dental diseases. The appropriateness of the focus group and interview methods for exploring oral health beliefs for the Chinese are discussed, as are implications of the reported intergenerational differences for oral health promotion strategy in the UK. (+info)
Anticipatory guidance in infant oral health: rationale and recommendations.
If appropriate measures are applied early enough, it may be possible to totally prevent oral disease. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry recommends that infants be scheduled for an initial oral evaluation within six months of the eruption of the first primary tooth but by no later than 12 months of age. The rationale for this recommendation is provided, although the recommendation itself is not universally accepted. Specific recommendations include elimination of bottles in bed, early use of soft-bristled toothbrushes (with parental supervision) and limitation of high-carbohydrate food intake after teeth have been brushed. (+info)
The impact of molecular genetics on oral health paradigms.
As a result of our increased understanding of the human genome, and the functional interrelationships of gene products with each other and with the environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that many human diseases are influenced by heritable alterations in the structure or function of genes. Significant advances in research methods and newly emerging partnerships between private and public sector interests are creating new possibilities for utilization of genetic information for the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. The availability and application of genetic information to the understanding of normal and abnormal human growth and development are fundamentally changing the way we approach the study of human diseases. As a result, the issues and principles of medical genetics are coming to bear across all disciplines of health care. In this review, we discuss some of the potential applications of human molecular genetics for the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases. This discussion is presented in the context of the ongoing technological advances and conceptual changes that are occurring in the field of medical genetics. To realize the promise of this new molecular genetics, we must be prepared to foresee the possibilities and to incorporate these newly emergent technologies into the evolving discipline of dentistry. By using examples of human conditions, we illustrate the broad application of this emerging technology to the study of simple as well as complex genetic diseases. Throughout this paper, we will use the following terminology: Penetrance--In a population, defined as the proportion of individuals possessing a disease-causing genotype who express the disease phenotype. When this proportion is less than 100%, the disease is said to have reduced or incomplete penetrance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--A technique for amplifying a large number of copies of a specific DNA sequence flanked by two oligonucleotide primers. The DNA is alternately heated and cooled in the presence of DNA polymerase and free nucleotides, so that the specified DNA segment is denatured, hybridized with primers, and extended by DNA polymerase. MIM--Mendelian Inheritance in Man catalogue number from V. McKusick's Mendelian Inheritance in man (OMIM, 1998). (+info)
Oral health of patients scheduled for elective abdominal aortic correction with prosthesis.
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the frequency of potential oral foci of infection in patients scheduled for elective abdominal aortic surgery. DESIGN: prospective clinical study. MATERIALS: oral health and dentures of 50 patients (33 males and 17 females, mean age 65 years) were examined before aortic surgery. CHIEF OUTCOME MEASURES: radiographic and clinical examination with special emphasis on identifying acute and chronic oral and ontogenic conditions which may contribute to aortic prosthesis infection. RESULTS: eighty-two per cent of the patients had some oral infection foci. The mean number of remaining teeth in the cohort was 9.3, and 21% of these were potential infectious foci (62% in the patients). Twenty-six per cent of the patients suffered from oral Candida infection. Seventy-four per cent of the patients had total or partial dentures, 45% of which were ill-fitting and needed repair. CONCLUSIONS: oral infectious foci occur frequently in patients needing aortic surgery. Untreated foci may contribute to aortic prosthesis infection. Preoperative oral evaluation and elimination of intraoral infection is recommended for patients scheduled for abdominal aortic repair. (+info)
Chewing gum--facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health.
The world market for chewing gum is estimated to be 560,000 tons per year, representing approximately US $5 billion. Some 374 billion pieces of chewing gum are sold worldwide every year, representing 187 billion hours of gum-chewing if each piece of gum is chewed for 30 minutes. Chewing gum can thus be expected to have an influence on oral health. The labeling of sugar-substituted chewing gum as "safe for teeth" or "tooth-friendly" has been proven beneficial to the informed consumer. Such claims are allowed for products having been shown in vivo not to depress plaque pH below 5.7, neither during nor for 30 minutes after the consumption. However, various chewing gum manufacturers have recently begun to make distinct health promotion claims, suggesting, e.g., reparative action or substitution for mechanical hygiene. The aim of this critical review--covering the effects of the physical properties of chewing gum and those of different ingredients both of conventional and of functional chewing gum--is to provide a set of guidelines for the interpretation of such claims and to assist oral health care professionals in counseling patients. (+info)
Oral health and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a review.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) results in significant morbidity that includes an adverse impact on oral health that is generally not well recognized. This review describes current literature which demonstrates poor oral health in children with JIA. The impact of JIA on oral health is probably multifactorial and these factors are discussed. This review emphasizes the role of paediatric dentistry in the multidisciplinary management of JIA and highlights the need for further research. (+info)
Trends in surgical and nonsurgical periodontal treatment.
BACKGROUND: New research is demonstrating that a person's total health is indeed related to his or her oral health. Elimination of all oral infections, including gingivitis and periodontis, is important to overall health. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This article reviews recent evidence on the systemic and oral connection and discusses these findings as they relate to patient care. The article examines trends in nonsurgical and surgical therapy that will successfully arrest periodontal infections. Opportunities for early diagnosis and prevention will play an increasing role in dental practice in the future as patients understand the importance of oral health to overall health. (+info)