2-Deoxyglucose selectively inhibits Fc and complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages II. Dissociation of the inhibitory effects of 2-deoxyglucose on phagocytosis and ATP generation.
Macrophages incubated in 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-dG)-containing medium showed a marked decrease in cellular ATP content, and were unable to ingest IgG- and complement-coated erythrocytes via the corresponding membrane receptors for these ligands. However, the inhibitory effects of 2-dG on Fc- and C3 receptor-mediated phagocytosis were not a consequence of lowered macrophage ATP levels since addition of glucose or mannose to the culture medium restored the capacity of the macrophages to ingest IgG- and C3-coated particles without increasing ATP levels. These results indicate that Fc- and C3 receptor-mediated phagocytosis (opsonin dependent) differs qualitatively from the ingestion of latex and zymosan particles (opsonin independent); they suggest that the same regulatory molecules govern the responses of phagocytic cells to signals initiated by both the Fc and C3 receptors. The possibility that these molecules are regulated by glycosylation is discussed. (+info
Influenza A virus accelerates neutrophil apoptosis and markedly potentiates apoptotic effects of bacteria.
Neutrophils are recruited into the airway in the early phase of uncomplicated influenza A virus (IAV) infection and during the bacterial superinfections that are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in IAV-infected subjects. In this report, we show that IAV accelerates neutrophil apoptosis. Unopsonized Escherichia coli had similar effects, although apoptotic effects of opsonized E coli were greater. When neutrophils were treated with both IAV and unopsonized E coli, a marked enhancement of the rate and extent of neutrophil apoptosis occurred as compared with that caused by either pathogen alone. Treatment of neutrophils with IAV markedly increased phagocytosis of E coli. Simultaneous treatment of neutrophils with IAV and E coli also elicited greater hydrogen peroxide production than did either pathogen alone. IAV increased neutrophil expression of Fas antigen and Fas ligand, and it also increased release of Fas ligand into the cell supernatant. These findings may have relevance to the understanding of inflammatory responses to IAV in vivo and of bacterial superinfection of IAV-infected subjects. (+info
Role of antibody and complement in opsonization of group B streptococci.
A requirement for the classic complement pathway in opsonization of group B streptococci was observed by using both a chemiluminescence and a radiolabeled bacterial uptake technique. The classic pathway increased levels of opsonization for types Ia and II stock and wild strains and for some type III wild strains. In contrast, other type III wild strains and the type III stock strain had accelerated kinetics of uptake in the presence of an intact classic pathway, but the level of opsonization was unchanged from that with antibody alone. We could not demonstrate a significant role for the alternative pathway in opsonizing stock or wild strains of group B streptococci. Futhermore, electrophoretic and complement consumption analysis by hemolytic titration failed to reveal alternative pathway activation by the majority of strains of this group. Therapy aimed at supplying opsonins for these organisms will require the presence of type-specific antibody. (+info
Type-specific opsonophagocytosis of group A Streptococcus by use of a rapid chemiluminescence assay.
A whole-blood chemiluminescence (CL) assay was developed to determine the presence of type-specific opsonic antibodies against group A streptococcus (GAS). Convalescent sera with high bactericidal activities against an M-1 serotype were used to opsonize different M-types of GAS. CL responses were monitored for 20 min, and results were expressed as integral counts/minute per phagocyte. CL responses of phagocytes incubated with M-1 GAS opsonized with homologous (M-1) serum were significantly higher than responses of phagocytes incubated with heterologous (M-3) GAS. Adsorption of convalescent serum against the homologous, but not the heterologous, strain markedly reduced the CL response, demonstrating type specificity. The CL assay showed a high correlation with the indirect bactericidal test (r=0.90). In conclusion, this CL assay is a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible method for quantifying type-specific opsonic antibodies against GAS and will be a useful tool for future clinical, basic science, and epidemiological studies. (+info
Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer-membrane protein F epitopes are highly immunogenic in mice when expressed on a plant virus.
A synthetic peptide (peptide 10) representing a surface-exposed, linear B cell epitope from outer-membrane (OM) protein F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown previously to afford protection in mice from P. aeruginosa infection. This peptide was expressed in tandem with the protein F peptide 18 on each of the two coat proteins of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). The chimaeric virus particles (CVPs) expressing the peptides on the S (small) coat protein (CPMV-PAE4) and L (large) coat protein (CPMV-PAE5) were used to immunize mice. Following subcutaneous immunization in Freund's and QuilA adjuvants, CPMV-PAE4 induced antibodies predominantly against peptide 18, whereas CPMV-PAE5 produced antibodies exclusively against peptide 10, indicating that the site of peptide expression on CPMV influences its immune recognition. The anti-peptide antibodies elicited by CPMV-PAE5 were predominantly of the IgG2a isotype, indicating a highly polarized TH1-type response. The peptide-specific IgG2a strongly recognized the whole F protein, but more importantly, recognized protein F in all seven Fisher-Devlin immunotypes of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the peptide-specific IgG2a in CVP/QS-21 adjuvant-immunized mice was shown to bind complement and to augment phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa by human neutrophils in vitro. The ability of CPMV-PAE5 to induce P. aeruginosa-specific opsonic IgG2a gives it potential for further development as a protective vaccine against P. aeruginosa. (+info
Participation of cofilin in opsonized zymosan-triggered activation of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells through rapid dephosphorylation and translocation to plasma membranes.
We studied the roles of cofilin, an actin-binding phosphoprotein, in superoxide production of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells triggered by opsonized zymosan (OZ). OZ caused dephosphorylation of cofilin as well as a transient increase of F-actin. Both reactions were complete within 30 s. Okadaic acid (OA) magnified the OZ-triggered O2--production 3.3-fold at 1 microM, but inhibited it completely at 5 microM. We used these critical concentrations to study the effects of OA on changes in phosphorylation and intracellular localization of cofilin. The OZ-induced dephosphorylation of cofilin was inhibited by 5 microM OA but not by 1 microM OA. Subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting revealed that 1 microM OA increased cofilin on the phagosomal membranous fraction but 5 microM OA decreased it. At 1 microM, OA increased translocation of p47phox to membranes, which may explain in part the enhancing effect of 1 microM OA. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that: (i) Cofilin diffused throughout the cytosol of resting cells, but accumulated at the plasma membranes forming phagocytic vesicles in activated cells. (ii) At 1 microM, OA had little effect on the OZ-evoked translocation of cofilin, whereas 5 microM OA suppressed it completely. (iii) OA alone, which could not trigger the phagocytic respiratory burst, did not cause any change in the distribution of cofilin at such concentrations. Furthermore, in a superoxide-producing cell-free system employing membranous and cytosolic fractions, affinity-purified anti-cofilin antibody showed an enhancing effect. These results suggest that cofilin participates in the superoxide production of the OZ-activated phagocytes through dephosphorylation and translocation. The roles of cofilin in the activated leukocytes will be discussed. (+info
Relationship between cell surface carbohydrates and intrastrain variation on opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Streptococcus pneumoniae undergoes spontaneous phase variation between a transparent and an opaque colony phenotype, the latter being more virulent in a murine model of sepsis. Opaque pneumococci have previously been shown to express lower amounts of C polysaccharide (cell wall teichoic acid) and in this study were shown to have a higher content of capsular polysaccharide by immunoelectron microscopy. This report then examined the relationship between expression of these two cell surface carbohydrate structures and their relative contribution to the increased virulence of opaque variants. Comparison of genetically related strains showed that the differential content of capsular polysaccharide did not affect the amount of teichoic acid as measured by a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In contrast, when the teichoic acid structure was altered by replacing choline in the growth medium with structural analogs, the quantity of capsular polysaccharide as measured by a capture ELISA was decreased, demonstrating a linkage in the expression of the two surface carbohydrate structures. A standardized assay was used to assess the relative contribution of cell surface carbohydrates to opsonophagocytosis. The opaque variants required 1.2- to 30-fold more immune human serum to achieve 50% opsonophagocytic killing than did related transparent variants (types 6B and 9V). The opsonophagocytic titer was proportional to the quantity of capsular polysaccharide rather than teichoic acid. The major factor in binding of the opsonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), was also the amount of capsular polysaccharide rather than the teichoic acid ligand. Only for the transparent variant (type 6B), which bound more CRP, was there enhanced opsonophagocytic killing in the presence of this serum protein. Increased expression of capsular polysaccharide, therefore, appeared to be the major factor in the decreased opsonophagocytic killing of opaque pneumococci. (+info
Avidity as a determinant of the protective efficacy of human antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.
Antibodies reactive with capsular polysaccharides are considered the principal mediators of immunity against invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS) antibody avidity can influence protective efficacy. We measured the avidities of individual adult postvaccination immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibodies to PPS serotypes 6B and 23F and examined the relationship between avidity and opsonophagocytic and mouse-protective activities. The avidities of PPS 6B- and PPS 23F-specific IgG2 antibodies ranged from 6 to 31 nM-1 and from 3 to 20 nM-1, respectively. We observed an inverse correlation between the magnitude of avidity and the amount of antibody required to protect mice against lethal bacteremia caused by serotype 6B pneumococci. Similarly, higher-avidity antibodies were more effective than lower-avidity antibodies in vitro in mediating complement-dependent opsonophagocytosis of both 6B and 23F pneumococci. These data suggest that in adults, PPS antibodies are sufficiently polymorphic to possess biologically significant variations in avidity. We conclude that avidity functions as an important determinant of anticapsular antibody protective efficacy against pneumococci. (+info