A Saprolegnia parasitica challenge system for rainbow trout: assessment of Pyceze as an anti-fungal agent for both fish and ova.
A reproducible Saprolegnia parasitica spore delivery system was developed and demonstrated to be effective in providing a sustained spore challenge for up to 10 d. Treatment of rainbow trout with slow-release intraperitoneal implants containing cortisol resulted in chronically elevated blood cortisol levels and rendered the fish susceptible to infection by S. parasitica when exposed to the spore challenge. Sham-implanted fish were not susceptible to infection. Bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitro-propane-1,3-diol), formulated as Pyceze, was effective in protecting predisposed fish from infection by S. parasitica when administered as a daily bath/flush treatment at concentrations of 15 mg l-1 and greater. Pyceze was also demonstrated to protect fertilised rainbow trout ova from S. parasitica challenge when administered as a daily bath/flush treatment at concentrations of between 30 and 100 mg l-1. Pyceze appears to qualify as a safe and effective replacement for malachite green and formalin in the prevention of fungal infections in the aquaculture environment. (+info)
Salicylic acid induction-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis express PR-2 and PR-5 and accumulate high levels of camalexin after pathogen inoculation.
In Arabidopsis, systemic acquired resistance against pathogens has been associated with the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and the expression of the pathogenesis-related proteins PR-1, PR-2, and PR-5. We report here the isolation of two nonallelic mutants impaired in the pathway leading to SA biosynthesis. These SA induction-deficient (sid) mutants do not accumulate SA after pathogen inoculation and are more susceptible to both virulent and avirulent forms of Pseudomonas syringae and Peronospora parasitica. However, sid mutants are not as susceptible to these pathogens as are transgenic plants expressing the nahG gene encoding an SA hydroxylase that degrades SA to catechol. In contrast to NahG plants, only the expression of PR-1 is strongly reduced in sid mutants, whereas PR-2 and PR-5 are still expressed after pathogen attack. Furthermore, the accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin is normal. These results indicate that SA-independent compensation pathways that do not operate in NahG plants are active in sid mutants. One of the mutants is allelic to eds5 (for enhanced disease susceptibility), whereas the other mutant has not been described previously. (+info)
Genetic and physical mapping of the RPP13 locus, in Arabidopsis, responsible for specific recognition of several Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew) isolates.
Fifteen isolates of the biotrophic oomycete Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew) were obtained from a population of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that established naturally in a garden the previous year. They exhibited phenotypic variation in a set of 12 Arabidopsis accessions that suggested that the parasite population consisted of at least six pathotypes. One isolate, Maks9, elicited an interaction phenotype of flecking necrosis and no sporulation (FN) in the Arabidopsis accession Nd-1, and more extensive pitting necrosis with no sporulation (PN) in the accession Ws-2. RPP13 was designated as the locus for a single dominant resistance gene associated with the resistance in Nd-1 and mapped to an interval of approximately 60 kb on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig on the lower arm of chromosome 3. This locus is approximately 6 cM telomeric to RPP1, which was previously described as the locus for the PN interaction with five Peronospora isolates, including resistance to Maks9 in Ws-2. New Peronospora isolates were obtained from four other geographically distinct populations of P. parasitica. Four isolates were characterized that elicited an FN phenotype in Nd-1 and mapped resistance to the RPP13 locus. This suggests that the RPP13 locus contains either a single gene capable of multiple isolate recognition or a group of tightly linked genes. Further analysis suggests that the RPP11 gene in the accession Rld-0 may be allelic to RPP13 but results in a different recognition capability. (+info)
The nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Sclerophthora macrospora virus B.
Sclerophthora macrospora Virus B (SmV B) found in S. macrospora, the pathogenic fungus responsible for downy mildew in gramineous plants, is a small icosahedral, monopartite virus containing a positive-strand ssRNA genome. In the present study, the complete nucleotide sequence of the SmV B genome was determined. The viral genome consists of 5533 nucleotides and has two large open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a putative polyprotein containing the motifs of chymotrypsin-related serine protease and RNA-directed RNA polymerase. ORF2 encodes a capsid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence shows some similarity to those of certain positive-strand RNA viruses, but the genome organization is characteristic and distinct from those of other known fungal RNA viruses. These results suggest that SmV B should be classified into a new group of mycoviruses. (+info)
Oocydin A, a chlorinated macrocyclic lactone with potent anti-oomycete activity from Serratia marcescens.
A unique chlorinated macrocyclic lactone, termed oocydin A, was isolated from a strain of Serratia marcescens growing as an epiphyte on Rhyncholacis pedicillata, an aquatic plant native to the Carrao river of the Venezuelan-Guyanan region of South America. The lactone has a molecular mass of 470 Da, and contains one atom of chlorine, a carboxyl group and a tetrahydrofuran ring internal to a larger macrocyclic ring. MICs of approximately 0.03 microg ml(-1) were noted for oocydin A against such phytopathogenic oomycetes as Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora parasitica, Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora citrophora. With regard to the true fungi, oocydin A had either minimal or no effect against certain Fungi Imperfecti (including several pathogens of humans), two ascomycetes and a basidiomycete. Oocydin A may have potential as an antimycotic in agricultural applications and especially for crop protection. (+info)
Is a fully established arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis required for a bioprotection of Pisum sativum roots against Aphanomyces euteiches?
Bioprotection of pea roots against Aphanomyces euteiches by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus G. mosseae was demonstrated to depend on a fully established symbiosis. This was related with induction of mycorrrhiza-related chitinolytic enzymes. Possible mechanisms implicated in bioprotection are discussed. (+info)
Members of the Arabidopsis HRT/RPP8 family of resistance genes confer resistance to both viral and oomycete pathogens.
Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) inoculation onto TCV-resistant Arabidopsis leads to a hypersensitive response (HR) controlled by the dominant gene HRT. HRT is a member of the class of resistance (R) genes that contain a leucine zipper, a nucleotide binding site, and leucine-rich repeats. The chromosomal position of HRT and its homology to resistance gene RPP8 and two RPP8 homologs indicate that unequal crossing over and gene conversion may have contributed to HRT evolution. RPP8 confers resistance to an oomycete pathogen, Peronospora parasitica. Despite very strong similarities within the HRT/RPP8 family, HRT and RPP8 are specific for the respective pathogens they detect. Hence, the HRT/RPP8 family provides molecular evidence that sequence changes between closely related members of multigene families can generate novel specificities for radically different pathogens. Transgenic plants expressing HRT developed an HR but generally remained susceptible to TCV because of a second gene, RRT, that regulates resistance to TCV. However, several transgenic plants that overexpressed HRT produced micro-HRs or no HR when inoculated with TCV and were resistant to infection. Expression of the TCV coat protein gene in seedlings containing HRT resulted in massive necrosis and death, indicating that the avirulence factor detected by the HRT-encoded protein is the TCV coat protein. (+info)
Production and characterization of two monoclonal antibodies specific for Plasmopara halstedii.
Sunflower downy mildew, caused by the fungus Plasmopara halstedii, is a potentially devastating disease. We produced two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (12C9 and 18E2) by immunizing mice with a partially purified extract of P. halstedii race 1. Both MAbs detected in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) all races of P. halstedii present in France. No cross-reactions were observed with Plasmopara viticola or with other fungi commonly associated with sunflowers. Both MAbs recognized the same three fungal antigens with molecular masses of 68, 140, and 192 kDa. However, the epitopes on the fungal antigens were distinct and repetitive. Seed homogenates from infected plants were incubated in wells coated with MAb 18E2. This resulted in the trapping of P. halstedii antigens that were identified with biotinylated MAb 12C9. No reactions were seen with seed homogenates from healthy plants. Thus, our results suggest that these MAbs might be used to develop a sandwich ELISA detection system for P. halstedii in infected seeds. (+info)