A cost/efficacy analysis of oral antifungals indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis: griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine.
This analysis was conducted at HIP Health plan of New Jersey (a Northeastern group model health maintenance organization) to determine the most cost-effective therapy among the three currently available oral antifungal drugs that are indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis: griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine. Costs of an appropriate and complete treatment regimen were calculated for each of the three drugs based on average wholesale price. Efficacy was determined by meta-analysis of the published literature for those studies where appropriate treatment regimens for onychomycosis were put to use. Efficacy outcome measures were limited to mycologic cure rates in the more recalcitrant cases of toenail onychomycosis. From these measures of cost and efficacy, a cost/efficacy ratio was calculated for each drug by dividing the cost per treatment by the weighted average mycological cure rate. This ratio represents the cost per mycologically cured infection. The final outcome measure (the cost per mycologically cured infection) was $2,721.28, $1,845.05, and $648.96, for griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine continuous therapies, respectively. For itraconazole and terbinafine pulse therapy, the costs were $855.88 and $388.50, respectively. For both continuous and pulse therapy, terbinafine is apparently the most cost-effective drug, followed by itraconazole and then by griseofulvin. Terbinafine has the fewest drug interactions and the highest treatment success rate. (+info)
Double blind, randomised study of continuous terbinafine compared with intermittent itraconazole in treatment of toenail onychomycosis. The LION Study Group.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of continuous terbinafine with intermittent itraconazole in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, double blind, double dummy, multicentre, parallel group study lasting 72 weeks. SETTING: 35 centres in six European countries. SUBJECTS: 496 patients aged 18 to 75 years with a clinical and mycological diagnosis of dermatophyte onychomycosis of the toenail. INTERVENTIONS: Study patients were randomly divided into four parallel groups to receive either terbinafine 250 mg a day for 12 or 16 weeks (groups T12 and T16) or itraconazole 400 mg a day for 1 week in every 4 weeks for 12 or 16 weeks (groups I3 and I4). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessment of primary efficacy at week 72 was mycological cure, defined as negative results on microscopy and culture of samples from the target toenail. RESULTS: At week 72 the mycological cure rates were 75.7% (81/107) in the T12 group and 80. 8% (80/99) in the T16 group compared with 38.3% (41/107) in the I3 group and 49.1 % (53/108) in the I4 group. All comparisons (T12 v I3, T12 v I4, T16 v I3, T16 v I4) showed significantly higher cure rates in the terbinafine groups (all P<0.0001). Also, all secondary clinical outcome measures were significantly in favour of terbinafine at week 72. There were no differences in the number or type of adverse events recorded in the terbinafine or itraconazole groups. CONCLUSION: Continuous terbinafine is significantly more effective than intermittent itraconazole in the treatment of patients with toenail onychomycosis. (+info)
How should managed care treat onychomycosis?
This activity is designed for leaders and managers of managed care organizations and for primary care physicians and specialists involved in evaluating, treating, and caring for patients with onychomycosis. GOAL: To help health professionals care for patients with onychomycosis through a discussion of new treatment choices that exist due to recently approved oral antifungal agents for this chronic medical condition. OBJECTIVES: 1. Review the anatomy of the nail unit in relation to the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of onychomycosis. 2. Stress the importance of confirming the diagnosis of onychomycosis using relatively simple and cost-effective laboratory procedures, since there are many other nonfungal conditions that can pathologically involve the nail unit. 3. Detail the ways in which onychomycosis can adversely affect a patient's quality of life. 4. Analyze the change in treatment patterns brought about by newer potentially curative oral antifungal therapy. 5. Identify potential problems with onychomycosis oral antifungal therapy, including dosing issues, possible adverse events, and drug-drug interactions. (+info)
Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream.
The prevalence of onychomycosis, a superficial fungal infection that destroys the entire nail unit, is rising, with no satisfactory cure. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to examine the clinical efficacy and tolerability of 2% butenafine hydrochloride and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia oil incorporated in a cream to manage toenail onychomycosis in a cohort. Sixty outpatients (39 M, 21 F) aged 18-80 years (mean 29.6) with 6-36 months duration of disease were randomized to two groups (40 and 20), active and placebo. After 16 weeks, 80% of patients using medicated cream were cured, as opposed to none in the placebo group. Four patients in the active treatment group experienced subjective mild inflammation without discontinuing treatment. During follow-up, no relapse occurred in cured patients and no improvement was seen in medication-resistant and placebo participants. (+info)
Systematic review of topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the feet.
OBJECTIVE: To identify and synthesise the evidence for efficacy and cost effectiveness of topical treatments for superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails of the feet. DESIGN: Systematic review. INTERVENTIONS: Topical treatments for superficial fungal infections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cure confirmed by culture and microscopy for skin and by culture for nails in patients with clinically diagnosed fungal infections. RESULTS: Of 126 trials identified in 121 papers, 72 (57.1%) met the inclusion criteria. Placebo controlled trials yielded pooled relative risks of failure to cure skin infections: allylamines (0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.38); azoles (0.54, 0.42 to 0.68); undecenoic acid (0.28, 0. 11 to 0.74); and tolnaftate (0.46, 0.17 to 1.22). Although meta-analysis of 11 trials comparing allylamines and azoles showed a relative risk of failure to cure of 0.88 (0.78 to 0.99) in favour of allylamines, there was evidence of language bias. Seven reports in English favoured allylamines (0.79, 0.69 to 0.91), but four reports in foreign languages showed no difference between the two drugs (1. 01, 0.90 to 1.13). Neither trial of nail infections showed significant differences between alternative topical treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Allylamines, azoles, and undecenoic acid were efficacious in placebo controlled trials. There are sufficient comparative trials to judge relative efficacy only between allylamines and azoles. Allylamines cure slightly more infections than azoles but are much more expensive than azoles. The most cost effective strategy is first to treat with azoles or undecenoic acid and to use allylamines only if that fails. (+info)
Onychomycosis caused by Blastoschizomyces capitatus.
Blastoschizomyces capitatus was cultured from the nail of a healthy patient with onychomycosis. The identity of the isolate was initially established by standard methods and ultrastructural analysis and was verified by molecular probing. Strains ATCC 200929, ATCC 62963, and ATCC 62964 served as reference strains for these analyses. To our knowledge, this is the first case of nail infection secondary to paronychia caused by this organism reported in the English literature. (+info)
Onychomycosis caused by Scytalidium dimidiatum. Report of two cases. Review of the taxonomy of the synanamorph and anamorph forms of this coelomycete.
The authors report two cases of onychomycosis in the dystrophic form, one of them involving an HIV-positive patient, provoked by Scytalidium dimidiatum, previously called Scytalidium lignicola. The subject is reviewed from the taxonomic viewpoint, considering the anamorph Hendersonula toruloidea as a synonym of Nattrassia mangiferae, and having Scytalidium dimidiatum as the major synanamorph. According to many mycologists, Scytalidium hyalinum may be a separate species or a hyaline mutant of Scytalidium dimidiatum. Scytalidium lignicola Pesante 1957 was considered to be the type-species of the genus by ELLIS (1971)13 and later to be a "conidial state" of Hendersonula toruloidea by the same author, today known as Nattrassia mangiferae. The microorganism lives only on the roots of certain plants (mainly Platanus and Pinus). It produces pycnidia and is not considered to be a pathogen, although it is considered as a possible emerging agent capable of provoking opportunistic fungal lesions. The importance of this topic as one of the most outstanding in fungal taxonomy, so likely to be modified over time, as well as its interest in the field of dermatologic mycology, are emphasized. (+info)
Prevalence and risk factors of tinea unguium and tinea pedis in the general population in Spain.
This study prospectively evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of tinea unguium and tinea pedis in the general adult population in Madrid, Spain. One thousand subjects were clinically examined, and samples of nails and scales from the interdigital spaces of the feet were taken from those patients presenting with signs or symptoms of onychomycosis and/or tinea pedis, respectively. In addition, a sample from the fourth interdigital space of both feet was collected from all individuals with a piece of sterilized wool carpet. Tinea unguium was defined as a positive direct examination with potassium hydroxide and culture of the etiological agent from subjects with clinically abnormal nails. Patients with positive dermatophyte cultures of foot specimens were considered to have tinea pedis. The prevalence of tinea unguium was 2.8% (4.0% for men and 1.7% for women), and the prevalence of tinea pedis was 2.9% (4.2% for men and 1.7% for women). The etiological agents of tinea unguium were identified as Trichopyton rubrum (82.1%), followed by Trichopyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.3%) and Trichopyton tonsurans (3.5%). Trichophyton rubrum (44.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (44.8%), followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (7%) and T. tonsurans (3.4%), were the organisms isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The percentage of subjects who suffered simultaneously from both diseases was 1.1% (1.7% for men and 0.6% for women). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (relative risk [RR], 1.03) and gender (RR, 2.50) were independent risk factors for tinea unguium, while only gender (RR, 2.65) was predictive for the occurrence of tinea pedis. In both analyses, the presence of one of the two conditions was associated with a higher risk for the appearance of the other disease (RR, >25). (+info)