Influence of some social and environmental factors on the nutrient intake and nutritional status of schoolchildren. (1/7)

Only children had significantly higher intakes of many nutrients and nutrients/1000 kcal than other children. A higher proportion of only children was found to be obese. There were no significant differences according to birthrank in intakes by children. There were more obese children among the fatherless than those with fathers, in particular among those whose mothers were widowed. However, this was not accounted for by the present dietary findings, since fatherless children had lower intakes of carbohydrate and added sugar. There were no differences in nutrient intake or intake/1000 kcal by mother's country of origin or her level of education, or by disposable income.  (+info)

Health effects of family size: cross sectional survey in Chinese adolescents. (2/7)

AIMS: To determine whether only children differ in terms of morbidity, nutritional status, risk behaviours, and utilisation of health services from children with siblings, in China. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was carried out using self completion questionnaires, anthropometry, and haemoglobin measurement in middle schools (predominant age 12-16 years) in three distinct socioeconomic areas of Zhejiang province, eastern China. RESULTS: Data were obtained for 4197 participants. No significant differences were found between only children and those with siblings for some key indicators: underweight 19% v 18%, suicide ideation 14% v 14%, and ever smoking 17% v 15%. Only children were more likely to be overweight (4.8% v 1.5%), and to have attended a doctor (71% v 63%) or dentist (17% v 10%) in the past year. Sibling children are significantly more likely to be anaemic (42% v 32%) and to admit to depression (41% v 21%) or anxiety (45% v 37%). However, after adjusting for area, sex, and parental education levels only two differences remained: sibling children are more likely to be bullied (OR 1.5, 1.1-2.0; p = 0.006) and are less likely to confide in parents (OR 0.6, 0.3-0.8, p = 0.009). There were no significant differences in the key parameters between first and second born children. CONCLUSIONS: We found no detrimental effects of being an only child using the indicators measured. Being an only child may confer some benefits, particularly in terms of socialisation.  (+info)

Harsh parenting in relation to child emotion regulation and aggression. (3/7)

This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents' and children's gender. Mothers' harsh parenting affected child emotion regulation more strongly than fathers', whereas harsh parenting emanating from fathers had a stronger effect on child aggression. Fathers' harsh parenting also affected sons more than daughters, whereas there was no gender differential effect with mothers' harsh parenting. These results are discussed with an emphasis on negative emotionality as a potentially common cause of family perturbations, including parenting and child adjustment problems.  (+info)

The development of executive functioning and theory of mind. A comparison of Chinese and U.S. preschoolers. (4/7)

Preschoolers' theory-of-mind development follows a similar age trajectory across many cultures. To determine whether these similarities are related to similar underlying ontogenetic processes, we examined whether the relation between theory of mind and executive function commonly found among U.S. preschoolers is also present among Chinese preschoolers. Preschoolers from Beijing, China (N= 109), were administered theory-of-mind and executive-functioning tasks, and their performance was compared with that of a previously studied sample of U.S. preschoolers (N= 107). The Chinese preschoolers outperformed their U.S. counterparts on all measures of executive functioning, but were not similarly advanced in theory-of-mind reasoning. Nonetheless, individual differences in executive functioning predicted theory of mind for children in both cultures. Thus, the relation between executive functioning and theory of mind is robust across two disparate cultures. These findings shed light on why executive functioning is important for theory-of-mind development.  (+info)

Infectious morbidity in 18-month-old children with and without older siblings. (5/7)


Little emperors: behavioral impacts of China's One-Child Policy. (6/7)


Being an only or last-born child increases later risk of obesity. (7/7)