(1/343) [3H]-Mesulergine labels 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum but not rat jejunum.

1. The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether binding sites corresponding to the 5-HT7 receptor could be detected in smooth muscle of the rat jejunum. Binding studies in rat brain (whole brain minus cerebellum) and guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle were also undertaken in order to compare the binding characteristics of these tissues. Studies were performed using [3H]-mesulergine, as it has a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors. 2. In the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, pKD values for [3H]-mesulergine of 8.0 +/- 0.04 and 7.9 +/- 0.11 (n = 3) and Bmax values of 9.9 +/- 0.3 and 21.5 +/- 4.9 fmol mg(-1) protein were obtained respectively, but no binding was detected in the rat jejunum. [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum was displaced with the agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) > 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) > or = 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) > sumatriptan and the antagonists risperidone > or = LSD > or = metergoline > ritanserin > > pindolol. 3. Despite the lack of [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat jejunum, functional studies undertaken revealed a biphasic contractile response to 5-HT which was partly blocked by ondansetron (1 microM). The residual response was present in over 50% of tissues studied and was found to be inhibited by risperidone > LSD > metergoline > mesulergine = ritanserin > pindolol, but was unaffected by RS 102221 (3 microM), cinanserin (30 nM), yohimbine (0.1 microM) and GR 113808 (1 microM). In addition, the agonist order of potency was 5-CT > 5-HT > 5-MeOT > sumatriptan. 4. In conclusion, binding studies performed with [3H]-mesulergine were able to detect 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, but not in rat jejunum, where a functional 5-HT7-like receptor was present.  (+info)

(2/343) Postoperative analgesia and vomiting, with special reference to day-case surgery: a systematic review.

BACKGROUND: Day-case surgery is of great value to patients and the health service. It enables many more patients to be treated properly, and faster than before. Newer, less invasive, operative techniques will allow many more procedures to be carried out. There are many elements to successful day-case surgery. Two key components are the effectiveness of the control of pain after the operation, and the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. OBJECTIVES: To enable those caring for patients undergoing day-case surgery to make the best choices for their patients and the health service, this review sought the highest quality evidence on: (1) the effectiveness of the control of pain after an operation; (2) the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. METHODS: Full details of the search strategy are presented in the report. RESULTS - ANALGESIA: The systematic reviews of the literature explored whether different interventions work and, if they do work, how well they work. A number of conclusions can be drawn. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INEFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS: There is good evidence that some interventions are ineffective. They include: (1) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in acute postoperative pain; (2) the use of local injections of opioids at sites other than the knee joint; (3) the use of dihydrocodeine, 30 mg, in acute postoperative pain (it is no better than placebo). RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF DOUBTFUL VALUE: Some interventions may be effective but the size of the effect or the complication of undertaking them confers no measurable benefit over conventional methods. Such interventions include: (1) injecting morphine into the knee joint after surgery: there is a small analgesic benefit which may last for up to 24 hours but there is no clear evidence that the size of the benefit is of any clinical value; (2) manoeuvres to try and anticipate pain by using pre-emptive analgesia; these are no more effective than standard methods; (3) administering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by injection or per rectum in patients who can swallow; this appears to be no more effective than giving NSAIDs by mouth and, indeed, may do more harm than good; (4) administering codeine in single doses; this has poor analgesic efficacy. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF PROVEN VALUE: These include a number of oral analgesics including (at standard doses): (1) dextropropoxyphene; (2) tramadol; (3) paracetamol; (4) ibuprofen; (5) diclofenac. Diclofenac and ibuprofen at standard doses give analgesia equivalent to that obtained with 10 mg of intramuscular morphine. Each will provide at least 50% pain relief from a single oral dose in patients with moderate or severe postoperative pain. Paracetamol and codeine combinations also appear to be highly effective, although there is little information on the standard doses used in the UK. The relative effectiveness of these analgesics is compared in an effectiveness 'ladder' which can inform prescribers making choices for individual patients, or planning day-case surgery. Dose-response relationships show that higher doses of ibuprofen may be particularly effective. Topical NSAIDs (applied to the skin) are effective in minor injuries and chronic pain but there is no obvious role for them in day-case surgery. RESULTS-POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING: The proportion of patients who may feel nauseated or vomit after surgery is very variable, despite similar operations and anaesthetic techniques. Systematic review can still lead to clear estimations of effectiveness of interventions. Whichever anti-emetic is used, the choice is often between prophylactic use (trying to prevent anyone vomiting) and treating those people who do feel nauseated or who may vomit. Systematic reviews of a number of different anti-emetics show clearly that none of the anti-emetics is sufficiently effective to be used for prophylaxis. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE  (+info)

(3/343) Inhibitory effect of ondansetron on glycine response of dissociated rat hippocampal neurons.

We examined the effect of ondansetron, an antagonist of type 3 serotonin receptors, on the whole cell response of freshly isolated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of neonatal and "mature" rats to glycine using the gramicidin perforated patch technique. Ondansetron depressed the current induced by subsaturating concentrations of glycine (IGly) in a concentration-dependent manner. The ondansetron concentration needed to depress IGly induced by 30 microM glycine to half amplitude was 25 microM. Ondansetron (54 microM) shifted the glycine concentration-response curve to the right in a parallel manner, increasing the EC50 for glycine from 40 +/- 3 microM to 70 +/- 5 microM. Ondansetron increased the time constant of activation of IGly without affecting the time constant of deactivation. When examined under current clamp conditions, glycine induced depolarization and hyperpolarization in neonatal and mature neurons, respectively; ondansetron also suppressed these responses to glycine. The data suggest that ondansetron competitively inhibits the glycine receptor.  (+info)

(4/343) Management of opioid-induced pruritus: a role for 5-HT3 antagonists?

We have evaluated the efficacy of ondansetron in the prevention of opioid-induced pruritus in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Using a 'human model' of opioid-induced pruritus, 80 ASA I-II patients about to undergo routine surgery were given either ondansetron 4 mg i.v. or 0.9% saline i.v. (40 in each group), 30 min before alfentanil 10 mg kg-1 i.v. During the following 5 min, patients were observed for signs of perinasal scratching and at 5 min were asked about symptoms of pruritus. The study was then terminated and anaesthesia was induced. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of scratching in patients receiving ondansetron compared with placebo (42.5% vs 70%, respectively, P = 0.013). The incidence of itching in the ondansetron group was less than that in the placebo group but this was not statistically significant (30% vs 42.5%, respectively, P = 0.245). We conclude that the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron may have a role in the management of opioid-induced pruritus.  (+info)

(5/343) Modification of the pharmacokinetics of high-dose cyclophosphamide and cisplatin by antiemetics.

Interpatient variability in exposure to certain chemotherapy agents can influence patient outcome, particularly with high-dose chemotherapy. We evaluated the possibility of a pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interaction between the antiemetic agents and high-dose cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and BCNU (CPA/cDDP/BCNU). Twenty-three self-selected patients treated with high-dose CPA/cDDP/BCNU followed by autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell support (AHPCS) received ondansetron, lorazepam and diphenhydramine as antiemetics. PK parameters for each chemotherapeutic drug in the regimen were compared with those of 129 patients who received exactly the same chemotherapy but an antiemetic regimen substituting prochlorperazine for ondansetron. In addition, we performed a review of the English literature for reported drug-drug interactions between antiemetics and chemotherapy agents that led to modifications in any PK parameters of the chemotherapy agent. Our retrospective study showed that the mean area under the curve (AUC) for both cyclophosphamide (76,600 vs 90,600 microg/ml/min, P=0.001) and cisplatin (525 vs 648 microg/ml/min, P = 0.01) were significantly lower in the ondansetron group when compared with the prochlorperazine group. The AUC for BCNU was not significantly different in both groups (544 vs 677, P = 0.43). We found only one report of modifications of the PK parameters of high-dose chemotherapy agents due to drug-drug interactions with the most commonly used antiemetics in a review of the English literature between 1966 and 1995. We concluded that the AUC of high-dose cyclophosphamide and cisplatin are significantly lower when ondansetron, as opposed to prochlorperazine, is used as the antiemetic. The small sample size and heterogeneity of this group of patients precludes any outcome analysis of pharmacodynamic endpoints such as toxicity or antitumor effect. Nevertheless, the potential for interactions between antiemetics and chemotherapy agents should be taken into account when using different high-dose chemotherapy regimens.  (+info)

(6/343) Costs of treating and preventing nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of ondansetron availability on the costs of managing nausea and vomiting. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed antiemetic costs (drug costs, nursing time, pharmacy time, physician's time, supplies, and facility "hotel" costs, in 1991 Canadian dollars) for all patients who received moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy from 6 months before to 6 months after ondansetron became commercially available in September 1991. We compared the costs for treating patients who received ondansetron versus those who received other antiemetic regimens, the costs for treating patients in the 6 months before versus the 6 months after ondansetron commercial availability, and the costs for treating patients in the first 4 months versus the last 4 months of the study period. RESULTS: We found no cost differences for patients treated with ondansetron versus other antiemetic regimens. However, there was a significant reduction in emesis management costs for patients treated after versus before the availability of ondansetron: for patients treated in the last third versus first third of the study period, there was a decrease in cost per patient per month of treatment of $374 (95% confidence interval, $243 to $505). These savings were achieved through a reduction in hospital bed days and other costs associated with the prevention and more effective management of nausea and vomiting. At the same time, the number of patients who received emetogenic chemotherapy and their average age increased, presumably because of the better control of gastrointestinal toxicity. CONCLUSION: Ondansetron availability has been associated with changes in the clinical management of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and with overall cost savings compared with previously available antiemetic therapy.  (+info)

(7/343) Use of intravenous microdialysis to monitor changes in serotonin release and metabolism induced by cisplatin in cancer patients: comparative effects of granisetron and ondansetron.

Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is involved in the production of emesis associated with cisplatin treatment. Serotonin released from intestinal enterochromaffin cells may act either directly on vagal afferents and/or pass to the circulation and stimulate central emetic centers. However, the role for circulating 5-HT has not been determined. In this study, i.v. microdialysis probes were used to investigate 1) cisplatin-induced changes in 5-HT release and metabolism assessed through changes in blood dialysate levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 2) whether free 5-HT in blood increases after cisplatin, and 3) whether granisetron and ondansetron exert different effects on cisplatin-induced 5-HT release and metabolism. Control experiments conducted in 10 healthy volunteers revealed stable 5-HT and 5-HIAA dialysate levels for a period of 6 h. In patients with cancer (n = 16), baseline blood dialysate 5-HIAA concentrations averaged 2.98 +/- 0.38 ng/ml, which were equivalent to a total of 94 +/- 10 pg in the 30-min collection period at a flow rate of 1 microl/min. Cisplatin (89 +/- 2.9 mg of cisplatin/m(2)) produced a gradual increase in blood dialysate 5-HIAA levels (104 +/- 4% increase at 4 h). Increases in dialysate 5-HIAA were associated with increases in the urinary excretion of this metabolite. After cisplatin, dialysate 5-HIAA levels increased to 5.89 +/- 0.5 ng/ml in granisetron and to 5.27 +/- 0.9 ng/ml in ondansetron-treated patients (P >.1). Similar time courses and percentages of increase in blood dialysate and urinary 5-HIAA levels were observed in ondansetron- and granisetron-treated patients. Contrary to 5-HIAA, no significant increases in dialysate 5-HT were observed from 2 to 8 h after cisplatin either for the total group or for each of the groups separately. In conclusion, i.v. microdialysis probes coupled to HPLC-EC allowed the continuous monitoring of free-5-HT and 5-HIAA in blood. Cisplatin-induced increases in blood 5-HIAA were not associated with increases in 5-HT blood dialysates. These results argue against a possible action of free 5-HT in plasma on the chemoreceptor trigger zone (unprotected from the blood brain barrier) but support the view that 5-HT released within the intestinal wall triggers emesis after cisplatin. Our results argue against the view that at clinically effective doses, granisetron and ondansetron exert different actions on cisplatin-induced 5-HT release and metabolism.  (+info)

(8/343) Pulmonary oedema produced by scorpion venom augments a phenyldiguanide-induced reflex response in anaesthetized rats.

1. The involvement of pulmonary oedema produced by scorpion venom in augmenting a phenyldiguanide (PDG)-induced reflex response was evaluated in urethane-anaesthetized rats. 2. PDG-induced bradycardiac, hypotensive and apnoeic responses, expressed as time-response area, exhibited similarities before or after venom treatment. Hence, the time-response area of bradycardia was taken as a reflex parameter. Pulmonary oedema was determined by physical evaporation and histological methods. 3. Exposure to Indian red scorpion (Buthus tamulus, BT; i.v.) venom for 30 min increased the pulmonary water content (P < 0.05; Student's t test) and augmented the PDG-induced bradycardiac reflex response by more than 2 times (P < 0.001). The increase of pulmonary water content was maximal with 100 microg kg-1 of venom and the augmentation was maximal with 10 microg kg-1. In a separate series of experiments, the venom (100 microg kg-1)-induced pulmonary oedema was confirmed by histological and physical methods. In this group also, the venom augmented the reflex to the same magnitude. 4. Pulmonary oedema (physical and histological) and augmentation of the bradycardiac reflex response after BT venom (100 microg kg-1; i.v.) were absent in animals pretreated with aprotinin, a kallikrein-kinin inhibitor (6000 KIU; i. v.). 5. Ondansetron (10 microg kg-1; i.v.), a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, failed to block the venom-induced pulmonary oedema (physical and histological) but blocked the venom-induced augmentation of the reflex. 6. The results of this study indicate that the venom-induced augmentation of the PDG reflex is associated with pulmonary oedema involving kinins utilizing 5-HT3 receptors.  (+info)