Biodiversity of Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia.
Lactococcus garvieae (junior synonym, Enterococcus seriolicida) is a major pathogen of fish, producing fatal septicemia among fish species living in very diverse environments. The phenotypic traits of L. garvieae strains collected from three different continents (Asia, Europe, and Australia) indicated phenotypic heterogeneity. On the basis of the acidification of D-tagatose and sucrose, three biotypes were defined. DNA relatedness values and a specific PCR assay showed that all the biotypes belonged to the same genospecies, L. garvieae. All of the L. garvieae strains were serotyped as Lancefield group N. Ribotyping proved that one clone was found both in Japan, where it probably originated, and in Italy, where it was probably imported. PCR of environmental samples did not reveal the source of the contamination of the fish in Italy. Specific clones (ribotypes) were found in outbreaks in Spain and in Italy. The L. garvieae reference strain, isolated in the United Kingdom from a cow, belonged to a unique ribotype. L. garvieae is a rising zoonotic agent. The biotyping scheme, the ribotyping analysis, and the PCR assay described in this work allowed the proper identification of L. garvieae and the description of the origin and of the source of contamination of strains involved in outbreaks or in sporadic cases. (+info)
Major histocompatibility complex differentiation in Sacramento River chinook salmon.
The chinook salmon of the Sacramento River, California, have been reduced to a fraction of their former abundance because of human impact and use of the river system. Here we examine the genetic variation at a major histocompatibility complex class II exon in the four Sacramento chinook salmon runs. Examination of the alleles found in these and other chinook salmon revealed nucleotide patterns consistent with selection for amino acid replacement at the putative antigen-binding sites. We found a significant amount of variation in each of the runs, including the federally endangered winter run. All of the samples were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. A significant amount of genetic differentiation between runs was revealed by several measures of differentiation. Winter run was the most genetically divergent, while the spring, late-fall, and fall runs were less differentiated. (+info)
Nocardia salmonicida nom. rev., a fish pathogen.
An almost complete gene sequence of 16S rDNA of 'Nocardia salmonicida' strain JCM 4826T was determined following cloning and sequencing of the amplified gene. The sequence was aligned with those available for nocardiae and phylogenetic trees inferred using four tree-making algorithms. The organism and the type strain of Nocardia asteroides consistently formed a monophyletic clade with a distant sequence similarity of 97%. However, previous DNA relatedness experiments showed that strain JCM 4826T and Nocardia asteroides ATCC 19247T belong to different genomic species. The organism was also distinguished from representatives of all validly described species of Nocardia using a combination of phenotypic features. The polyphasic evidence showed that the strain merits recognition as a new species of the genus Nocardia. The name proposed for the new species is Nocardia salmonicida nom. rev. (+info)
A field evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test developed to diagnose plasmacytoid leukemia in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).
An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) developed for the diagnosis for plasmacytoid leukemia was evaluated against histology under field conditions. Previously published results from a laboratory evaluation indicated that the IFAT had a much higher sensitivity than did histology. One hundred seventy-seven moribund chinook salmon from 3 farms located in British Columbia were sampled. Sensitivity, specificity and their respective quality indices were estimated for the IFAT relative to histology. The IFAT was shown to be unreliable, particularly with respect to sensitivity. Cohen's kappa was also calculated and revealed that the agreement between the 2 tests was no better than random. In contrast to previously published results the IFAT did not perform better than histology in the presence of bacterial kidney disease. The results emphasize the importance of evaluating tests in the field conditions in which they are to be used. The possible reasons for the shortcomings of the IFAT are discussed. (+info)
Experimental and natural host specificity of Loma salmonae (Microsporidia).
The microsporidian Loma salmonae (Putz, Hoffman & Dunbar, 1965) Morrison & Sprague, 1981 has caused significant gill disease in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. Host specificity of the parasite was examined experimentally by per os challenge of selected salmonids and non-salmonids with infective chinook salmon O. tshawytscha gill material. Pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta, brown Salmo trutta and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and chinook salmon (controls) were positive, whereas Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus were negative. In addition, no non-salmonids were susceptible to experimental exposure. Wild Pacific salmon species in British Columbia, Canada, were examined for L. salmonae during their freshwater life history stages (smolts, prespawning, spawning). All stages were infected, although infections in smolts were only detectable using a L. salmonae-specific PCR test. Many previous Loma spp. described from Oncorhychus spp. are likely L. salmonae based on host, parasite morphology, and site of infection. (+info)
High incidence of a male-specific genetic marker in phenotypic female chinook salmon from the Columbia River.
Numerous populations of anadromous salmonids in the northwestern United States have been declining for many years, resulting in Endangered Species Act listings and in some cases extinction. The degradation of river ecosystems has been proposed as one of the major reasons for the inability of salmon to maintain their populations. However, the specific factors interfering with the reproduction and survival of salmon during the freshwater phase of their life cycle have not been fully described. This study was initiated to determine the incidence of phenotypic sex reversal in wild, fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) that returned to spawn in the Columbia River. Fish were sampled at different locations within this watershed to determine whether they were faithfully expressing their genotype. We report a high incidence (84%) of a genetic marker for the Y chromosome in phenotypic females sampled from the wild, which was not observed in female fish raised in hatcheries. It appears likely that female salmon with a male genotype have been sex reversed, creating the potential for an abnormal YY genotype in the wild that would produce all-male offspring and alter sex ratios significantly. (+info)
Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm.
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15--20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II beta-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes are highly polymorphic in both species and diploid in expression. The MHC class I alleles comprise several highly divergent lineages that are represented in both species and predate genera separation. The class II alleles are less divergent, highly species specific, and probably arose after genera separation. The striking difference in salmonid MHC class I and class II evolution contrasts with the situation in primates, where lineages of class II alleles have been sustained over longer periods of time relative to class I lineages. The difference may arise because salmonid MHC class I and II genes are not linked, whereas in mammals they are closely linked. A prevalent mechanism for evolving new MHC class I alleles in salmonids is recombination in intron II that shuffles alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains into different combinations. (+info)
Cloning and expression analysis of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss tumour necrosis factor-alpha.
A rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gene for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been cloned and sequenced. The cDNA contains an open reading frame of 738 nucleotides that translate into a 246 amino-acid putative peptide, with a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 140 bp and a 3' UTR of 506 bp. Two potential N-linked glycosylation sites exist in the translation. The genomic sequence measures 2007 bp and contains three introns that intercept four coding exons. Expression studies using RT-PCR have shown that the trout TNF gene is constitutively expressed in the gill and kidney of unstimulated fish. Trout TNF expression could be up-regulated by stimulation of isolated head kidney leucocytes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Similarly, stimulation of a trout macrophage cell line (RTS11) with LPS resulted in an increased transcript level, as did incubation with recombinant trout interleukin (IL)-1 beta. The optimal timing for induction of TNF expression in trout macrophages was determined using recombinant trout IL-1 beta, where a clear induction was apparent by 2 h and peaked at 4 h. Evidence that this TNF gene is equivalent to mammalian TNF-alpha is discussed. (+info)