Connecting reovirus oncolysis and Ras signaling.
Reovirus is a benign virus with innate oncolytic activity and is a potential novel therapeutic for a number of cancers. Reovirus can replicate in, and induce death of cancerous cells having an activated Ras pathway. Ras activation leads to the inactivation of cellular antiviral mechanisms, specifically removing the translation block on reovirus transcripts. This review outlines recent progress towards elucidating the molecular connection between the Ras-signaling pathway and reovirus replication. (+info)
Viral oncolysis by herpes simplex virus and other viruses.
The use of viruses to destroy tumors, also known as viral oncolysis, dates back to the early 1900's. Although the mechanism of cancer cell lysis was unknown in the early years of development, advances in tumor biology, molecular biology, and virology have been critical for numerous advances that have brought the field to where it is today. Oncolytic viruses have been developed based on innate and engineered properties to preferentially target tumor cells. Engineered properties include alterations in endogenous gene expression and introduction of foreign genes. Methods to non-invasively monitor sites of viral replication is required for preclinical and clinical studies. Positron emission tomography (PET) can be used for this purpose. This review focuses on commonly used oncolytic viruses, their selection for oncolytic therapy, the design of HSV-1 viral mutants, and monitoring their replication by PET. (+info)
Oncolytic measles virus in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas mounts antitumor immune responses in vivo and targets interferon-resistant tumor cells.
Some cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, (CTCLs) clonal T cells are deficient in interferon signaling, making them promising targets for viral oncolysis. We evaluated cytopathic effects of measles virus (MV) in CTCL. CTCL cell lines and infiltrating lymphocytes in CTCL expressed MV receptors CD150 and CD46. In a phase 1 dose escalation trial a total of 16 injections of live MV, Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine strain, were given intratumorally to 5 patients with CTCL. Patients had antimeasles-serum antibodies and were pretreated with interferon-alpha to prevent uncontrolled virus spread. The well-tolerated treatment with MV resulted in clinical responses. Evaluation of biopsies, before and at 11 days after injection, by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated local viral activity with positive staining for MV nucleoprotein (NP), an increase of the interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)/CD4 and IFN-gamma/CD8 mRNA ratios and a reduced CD4/CD8 ratio. All patients demonstrated an increased antimeasles antibody titer after therapy. The data demonstrate that CTCLs are promising targets for an MV-based oncolytic therapy. (+info)
Adenoviral E1a expression levels affect virus-selective replication in human cancer cells.
One of the promising strategies for targeting replication of oncolytic adenovirus in tumor cells is to regulate the expression of essential viral genes such as E1a by using tumor- or tissue-specific promoters that are preferentially active in cancer cells. However, this approach may lead to some degree of viral replication in normal cells other than in cancer cells if the viral gene also expresses in normal cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of E1a expression levels on the virus replication ability in human cells. Three vectors, all with mutated E1B55K, were created, one without any promoter controlling the E1a gene and two vectors with the E1a gene being controlled by either its endogenous promoter or a strong CMV promoter. We observed that the CMV promoter-mediated high levels of E1A expression could increase virus replication, resulting in the titers of the E1B55K-mutated virus being even higher than the wild-type virus in some cancer cells. However, the strong CMV promoter could not always enhance virus replication, such as in cancer cells OE33 and OsACL. The results suggest that whether increased E1A levels would enhance E1B55K-mutated virus replication may be also depended on cellular factors or pathways in cancer cells. We also observed that the virus without any promoter for the E1a gene could still express leaky levels of E1A which can lead to viral replication in normal and cancer cells. Future efforts in the development of transcription-controlled oncolytic adenoviruses should focus on how to completely block E1a expression in normal cells. (+info)
5-fluorouracil and gemcitabine potentiate the efficacy of oncolytic herpes viral gene therapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Oncolytic herpes viruses are attenuated, replication-competent viruses that selectively infect, replicate within, and lyse cancer cells and are highly efficacious in the treatment of a wide variety of experimental cancers. The current study seeks to define the pharmacologic interactions between chemotherapeutic drugs and the oncolytic herpes viral strain NV1066 in the treatment of pancreatic cancer cell lines. The human pancreatic cancer cell lines Hs 700T, PANC-1, and MIA PaCa-2 were treated in vitro with NV1066 at multiplicities of infection (MOI; ratio of the number of viral particles per tumor cell) ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 with or without 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or gemcitabine. Synergistic efficacy was determined by the isobologram and combination-index methods of Chou and Talalay. Viral replication was measured using a standard plaque assay. Six days after combination therapy, 76% of Hs 700T cells were killed compared with 43% with NV1066 infection alone (MOI = 0.1) or 0% with 5-FU alone (2 micromol/L) (P < .01). Isobologram and combination-index analyses confirmed a strongly synergistic pharmacologic interaction between the agents at all viral and drug combinations tested (LD5 to LD95) in the three cell lines. Dose reductions up to 6- and 78-fold may be achieved with combination therapy for NV1066 and 5-FU, respectively, without compromising cell kill. 5-FU increased viral replication up to 19-fold compared with cells treated with virus alone. Similar results were observed by combining gemcitabine and NV1066. We have demonstrated that 5-FU and gemcitabine potentiate oncolytic herpes viral replication and cytotoxicity across a range of clinically achievable doses in the treatment of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. The potential clinical implications of this synergistic interaction include improvements in efficacy, treatment-associated toxicity, tolerability of therapeutic regimens, and quality of life. These data provide the cellular basis for the clinical investigation of combined oncolytic herpes virus therapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. (+info)
Virally directed fluorescent imaging improves diagnostic sensitivity in the detection of minimal residual disease after potentially curative cytoreductive surgery.
Completeness of cytoreduction is an independent prognostic factor after cure-intended surgery for peritoneal carcinomatosis. NV1066, a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus carrying the transgene for green fluorescent protein, selectively infects cancer cells. We sought to determine the feasibility of virally directed fluorescent imaging in the intraoperative detection of minimal residual disease after cytoreductive surgery. NV1066 infected human gastric cancer cells, OCUM-2MD3, and mesothelioma JMN cells at all doses. The infected cells expressed green fluorescent protein and were killed. OCUM-2MD3, and mesothelioma JMN cells at all doses. Peritoneal carcinomatosis was established in mice by injection of OCUM cells into the peritoneal cavity. Forty-eight hours after intraperitoneal injection of NV1066, two experienced surgeons resected all visible disease and identified mice free of disease. Eight of 13 mice thought to be free of disease were found to have residual disease as identified by green fluorescence (mean number of observations: 5; range: 1-9). Residual disease was most frequently observed in the retroperitoneum, pelvis, peritoneal surface, and liver. Specificity of NV1066 infection to tumor nodules was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and by polymerase chain reaction for viral gene. Virally directed fluorescent imaging, a novel molecular imaging technology, can be used for real-time visualization of minimal residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and can improve the completeness of cure-intended resection. (+info)
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus vector g47delta in combination with androgen ablation for the treatment of human prostate adenocarcinoma.
PURPOSE: The use of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 is a promising stategy for cancer treatment. We constructed herpes simplex virus type 1 vector G47Delta by deleting the alpha47 gene and the promoter region of US11 from G207. We now report studies demonstrating the potential of G47Delta as a therapeutic modality for prostate cancer in combination with androgen ablation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The cytopathic activities of G47Delta at low multiplicities of infection was tested in human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, and DU145 in vitro. Two androgen-dependent mouse s.c. tumor models, murine TRAMP and human HONDA, were used to investigate the in vivo efficacy of G47Delta in combination with androgen ablation. RESULTS: G47Delta at low multiplicities of infection showed more rapid tumor cell killing than G207 in LNCaP and DU145 in vitro and showed a 22-fold higher virus yield in a single-step growth experiment. In vivo, G47Delta treatment resulted in reduced tumor growth of established s.c. TRAMP and HONDA tumors and inhibited the growth of recurrent HONDA tumors that once regressed by androgen ablation therapy. In both TRAMP and HONDA tumor xenografts, the combination therapy of G47Delta with androgen ablation led to significantly enhanced inhibition of the tumor growth and prolonged survival. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that oncolytic virus therapy with G47Delta can be usefully combined with androgen ablation therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. (+info)
Cyclophosphamide allows for in vivo dose reduction of a potent oncolytic virus.
The success of cancer virotherapy depends on its efficacy versus toxicity profile in human clinical trials. Progress towards clinical trials can be hampered by the relatively elevated doses of oncolytic viruses administered in animal models to achieve an anticancer effect and by the even higher doses required in humans to approximate an animal bioequivalent dose. Such elevated doses of injected viral proteins may also lead to undesirable toxicities and are also very difficult to produce in a biotechnological setting. We report that a relatively potent herpes simplex virus type 1 oncolytic virus (rQNestin34.5) produces 45% survivors at a dose of 3 x 10(4) plaque-forming units (pfu) in a 9-day-old mouse model of human glioma. Unlike our previous findings with less potent oncolytic viruses, though, the preadministration of cyclophosphamide did not enhance this survival or affect oncolytic virus tumor distribution and tumor volume. However, when oncolytic virus doses were reduced (3 x 10(3) and 3 x 10(2) pfu), cyclophosphamide significantly enhanced both animal survival and oncolytic virus tumor distribution and also reduced tumor volumes. These findings thus show that cyclophosphamide allows for dose reduction of doses of a relatively potent oncolytic virus, a finding with implications for the development of clinical trials. (+info)